Understanding Al-iLah – The god of Muhammad, Islam and Muslims (Part 1)

“The word ‘Allah’ predates Islam. Each Pagan Arab tribe had its own idol-gods and goddesses, but a number of tribes also acknowledged the existence of an “unknown god” they called al-ilah, which literally means (the god). He was considered to be the invisible, supreme deity; however, they did not have a unified concept of who he was. In due time, Allah became “…a universalization of that tribal god, who was often referred to as al-ilah (the god). When the tribe encountered another tribe, who had a god whom they also referred to as al-ilah, they both thought that they were referring to the same being, and so a universal idea of Allah grew among the Pagan Bedouin Arabs.” – Nazir Ali

At this very moment, a Muslim is born and again on his/her death bed, seven Arabic words are whispered unto his/her ears: “La ilaha illilla, wa Muhammad ul rasul Allah” which translates as “(There is) no god except Allah and Muhammad (is) Allah’s prophet.” This creed, which is the focal point of the Islamic religion, is instilled into the minds of many a Muslims from cradle to grave for the last 1400 years. It is repeated five times a day to the Islamic call to prayers, etc. And, Muslims are also encouraged to repeat the name of Allah as many times as possible throughout those days in their lifetime!

Who is the so-called god of Muslims? What do we know about him? Or how was this god discovered some 1400 years ago? Questions…(?), I am sure many have asked and many still don’t even know about?

In this essay, we will try to delve into this and exemplify what is the real picture of Allah. History is there to know and learn about.

Ancient Pagan Bedouin Arabs had lots of deities, whom they worshipped. They were actually very superstitious believers. Hence, they believed in anything that amazed them and/or they were fearful in not knowing about it. Subsequently, some 360 odd idol-deities were represented in the sacred temple of Kaab’ah in their holy city of Mecca. Of these deities, four were prominent and the dominant gods in the desert region around Mecca and in large parts of the dunes of Arabian Peninsula.


They were: al-iLah, and his three daughters, al-Latal-Uzzah and al-Manat. The top god was al-iLah (the name simply means “the god”).

The Three Goddesses of Pagan Arabia.

Muhammad simply chose the Pagan Arab’s supreme god al-iLah, aka Allah, and told that all the other gods were just made-up fantasies, and that Allah and the Jewish/Christian god Yahweh was one and the same god.

The Jews and Christians totally reject the Muslim claim that Islamic and the Jewish/Christian god, given there are too many fundamental and stark differences between their belief systems! It impossible to reconciles the god of the Quran and that of the Bible/Torah, unless this ILLUSTRIOUS god has a severe split personality—schizophrenia or a serious disorder in his godly mind frame (“Do not kill” vs. “Do not kill without a good reason”, the search for and the value of the “lost lamb” vs. “Do not mourn the wrongdoers”, to mention just the two).

However, Allah is also a much harsher god towards non-believers than Yahweh, at least as you meet Yahweh in both the Old & New Testament scriptures and the new covenant versus Allah in the late parts of Muhammad’s teachings Medina Surahs. In the Old Testament (OT), it is told about religious wars 2000-4000 years ago, whilst in the New Testament (NT) hardly accepts any wars. The Koran, especially those Surahs from Medina times, not only incites to hatred and war against non-believers, but also makes such wars a compulsory and unceasing duty upon the believers of Islam until Islam prevails, dominates and supersedes all the religion (2:193, 8:39 etc)! And that the second-class Kafir citizens must be measured with differing rights and privileges from those of Muslims, and they must always pay extra taxes under Islamic governance. Nice texts for terrorists?

It must be agreed that the Christian faith were sometimes used for political or military purposes despite no overt commandment to the effect in the NT scriptures. Islam has been used rights for terrorist, political and military purposes solely in accordance with its overt commandments to the effect, especially in the last some 22 Surahs from Medina (ones that are really valid according to Islam’s rule of abrogation – i.e. when two or more verses disagree, the youngest one normally is the correct one and the older ones are invalid. Obviously late Medina Surahs—that preach hatred, rape, violence and oppression—are the youngest).

Allah and the Christo-Jewish god are the same only if Allah is schizophrenic

Since there no convincing answers to the problem, let us list the mistakes that have been found, and then ask Muslims and non-Muslims for explanations. Please tell us where we are wrong, so we can understand why Islam is a real and true, and benevolent religion.

  1. “As for the Kafirs, whether thou warn them or thou warn them not, it is all one for them; for they believe not in Allah. Allah hath sealed their hearing and their hearts, and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be an awful doom […] In their hearts is a disease, and Allah increaseth their disease. A painful doom is theirs because they lie”. (Koran 2:6-10)
  2. “And Allah’s is the direction of the way, and some (roads) go not straight. And had He willed He would have led you all aright”. (Koran 16:9)
  3. “And Allah guideth not the disbelieving folks. For such are they, whose hearts and ears and eyes Allah hath sealed. And such are the heedless. Assuredly in the Hereafter they are the losers”. (Koran 16:107-109)
  4. “As for him who disbelieveth, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, and then I shall compel him to the doom of Fires of Hell -a hapless journey’s end!” (Koran 2:126)
  5. “For he whom Allah causeth to go astray, thou (O Muhammad) wilt not find a way for him: O ye who believe! Choose not disbelievers for (your) friends in place of believers. Would ye give Allah a clear warrant against you?” (Koran 4:143-144)
  6. “Lo! For those who disbelieve and deal in wrong, Allah will never forgive them; neither will He guide them unto a road, except the road of hell, wherein they will abide forever. And that is ever easy for Allah.” (Koran 4:168-169)

The spoken words of al-iLah overlap with those phrases such as “superiority of Muslims”, “making no friends with non-Muslims”, and “incitement to dislikes, hate and suppression” etc. They promote general dislikes, distancing from other beliefs and owning superiority – making an “enemy-picture” between Muslims and non-Muslims, whereas other verses directly incite hatred, violence and war.

And thanks exactly to such sacred teachings, Islam and non-Muslims has a very dark history – not quite black, but nearly – in spite of the use of good points as glossy flagships in official Islamic speeches and propagandas. While it is not entirely black, if you take into consideration the Mecca part of Quranic verses, but only when you “forget” that the softer attitude of the Quran in Meccan verses have basically overridden by the much harsher Medina Surahs, cruel and inhuman toward non-Muslims.

But beware that few, if any, of the ethical codes behind even this softer part of Islamic teachings were in fact not new ideas of Muhammad or Islamic Allah. They were taken/copied in thoughts mainly from neighboring cultures – Jewish, Christian, Persian and old Pagan Bedouin Arab cultures and religions.

To mention two of Islam’s “flagship” teachings, which we get to hear always:

  1. Muhammad put an end to killing girl babies (Koran 6:51)” – This is true, but a one blown out of proportion. It is clear – and also agreed by Muslim scholars – that while such killings happened, but only seldom. And Arab wise men were already condemning the practice before Muhammad. Muhammad simply picked up the thoughts of other Arab wise men and “sanctified” it as his own religious teaching.
  • The situation for women became much better under Islam”, Muslims like to tell. This is far less than half the truth. It may be true for women living in towns at least in parts of Arabia, but how many ever lived in towns and how many lived in rural areas around 610-632 C.E.? Moreover, the Koran does not say much about the life for non-Muslims under the Muslim rule. Most of it, one has to guess from those Koranic verses talking only indirectly about such things. For Example: Surahs talking about war, suppressing of non-Muslims, the superiority of Muslims, Muslim marriages, etc., etc!

Muslims – Allah’s Superior Race

It is only normal that in certain totalitarian racist system, the ruling group is said to be of better class or superiority, while all others are the marginalized lot. Allah has systematized this in the Koran to an extreme degree, where Muslims are the only worthy sort! Ironically, the Arabs, from the birth of Islam to this day, have reckoned themselves to be better quality Muslims than Muslims of other races, and honorable Muslims from non-Arab races have always criticized this. Below, we will review verses of Mecca part of the Quran that unravel the fact that Islam was racist religion from the very start.

Year 611-614 AD, Surahs 68:

68:8: “…So hearken not to those who deny (the Truth).” – do not bother about the lowly infidels.

68:35-36: “Shall We (Allah) treat the people of Faith (Muslims) like the People of Sin (non-Muslims)? What is the matter with you? How judge you?” Yes, “how judge ye” to believe non-Muslims can be of as good quality humans as Muslims?

Year 612-615 AD, Surahs 53:

53:29: “…shun those who turn away from Our (Allah’s) Message…” Shun the non-Muslims.

Year 614, Surahs 50:

50:24: “…throw into Hell every contumacious Rejecter (of Allah)!” Good Muslims do not end in Hell, so they clearly are much better.

Year 614-615 AD, Surahs 25:

25:44: “They (non-Muslims) are only like cattle -nay, they are worse astray in the Path.” Non-Muslims less worth than cattle. Well, we have heard that in some madrasas (Muslim religious schools) they discuss if non-Muslims have half the value of Muslims or less. It may be true?

Year not later than 614 – 615 AD, Surahs 20:

20:16: “…let not such as believe not therein (in the Koran) but follow their own lusts, divert thee (Muslim) there from…” No, it is much better to be a Muslim.

Year 614-615 AD, Surahs 35:

007 35/8: “Is he, then, to whom the evil of his conduct is made alluring (non-Muslims)… (equal to one who is rightly guided)?” Of course not – Muslims are much better, of course. This even though the famous Muslim al-Ghazali (1058-1111 AD) – “the greatest Muslim after Muhammad”, according to Islam – marked the end of any new thinking in any science in the eastern and central Muslim world with his book “The Incoherence of the Philosophers” against philosophy in 1095 AD. For more than 900 years, there have not come one single new thought or idea bringing humanity forward in any kind of science, “humanoria” included, from the Muslim world, Mahgreb/Spain excluded. (There the ability and freedom to think yourself lasted another ca. 100 years – the death of Ibn Rushd (Averroes) in 1198 can arbitrarily be said to mark the end there). Not one single new thought or new idea in over 900 years! Among now some 1.2 BILLION people! Yes, it has really to be said: It is difficult to match Muslims and Islam.

Actually, for long times, new ideas meant punishment or even death penalty in some places, although after some time it was agreed on that new ideas building on the Koran and the Hadiths could be accepted, but all other ideas were “Bad new thoughts” and negative or punishable.

35:19: “The blind (non-Muslims) and the seeing (Muslims) are not alike…” No, a blind man – like Stevie Wonder – has no value!

35:20: “Nor (alike) are the depths of Darkness (meaning non-Muslims*) and the Light (meaning Muslims)…” Logically, as true as a number of other loose statements that is in the Koran. But is a religion and culture that do not bring one single new thought or idea benefiting man for more than 900 years – and that is literally speaking – really represents light?

35:21: “Nor (alike) are the (chilly) shade (non-Muslims) and the (genial) heat of the sun (Muslims)…” Is it here symbolic that in Paradise there is shade according?

35:22: “Nor (alike) are those who are living (Muslims) and those that are dead (non-Muslims).” In a stagnant civilization of the intellectually living-dead (see 35/8), this is likely to be true of course. (But there have been some small tendencies to new intellectual life the last some 60 years – though not enough to bring forth new ideas, only to question some of the old ones).

Is it symbolic that intellectual life in medieval Islam lasted longest in the West (Mahgreb/Spain?)? But Muslims are best according to this verse and many more in the Koran.

Year 614-615 AD, Surahs 38:

38:28: “Shall We (Allah) treat those who believe and work deeds of righteousness (Muslims) the same as those who do mischief on earth (non-Muslims)?” Of course not – Muslims are the best and deserves the best treatment. Just like the Nazis in Germany, the Chinese in Mao’s China, the Serbs under Milochewich or communists under Pol Pot, to mention a few.

38:28: “Shall We (Allah) treat those who guard against evil (Muslims), the same as those who turn away from the right (non-Muslims)?” Above we have commented the quotations – and will comment more. But read them alone and pretend you are a believing Muslim. Lots of such statements make an impression, and build up something inhuman inside a person who comes to believe it. (May be a reason why the humanitarian organizations mainly originate in the West, not f. ex. in the rich Saudi Arabia? – a fundamental difference somewhere deep down?)

Year 615-617 AD, Surahs 39:

39:9: “Is one (Muslim) who worship devotedly during the hours of the night – (like one who does not (non-Muslim)…?” According to the Koran, there is big difference. And who in a primitive or brain-washed audience or in an audience WANTING to believe, understand they are manipulated?

39:9: “Are those equal, those who know (Muslims) and those (non-Muslims) who do not know?” Statements and questions like this is a psychologically efficient way to build up a belief in “our” own superiority and the inferiority and badness of the rest. Many dictators frequently use similar technique – be it countries or organizations. The not too intelligent and/or those with limited education mostly do not understand they are manipulated.

39:9: “It is those (Muslims) who are endued with understanding that receives admonition”. This is another efficient way of manipulating: Flatter. Especially the ones not endowed with too much reasoning power, easily like to believe things like this. It makes their self-esteem swell. And if other groups in addition are said to be inferior to them, that surely does not hurt their self-esteem either.

39:19: “Is, then, one against whom the decree of Punishment is justly due (non-Muslim) (equal to one who eschews evil (Muslims)”. Still another technique for manipulation. In this case, partly to induce real discrimination, “they” are bad people and cannot be compared to “us”. Maybe we even had better shun them – or do worse?

39:22: “Is one whose heart Allah has opened to Islam (Muslims) – – – (no better than one hardhearted (non-Muslim)”. Of course Muslims are the best – at least according to the Koran. Good for the self-esteem, at least for the ones needing a boost of the same – which often includes the rubble in a society.

39:24: “Is, then, one (non-Muslim) who has to fear the brunt of the Penalty (Hell) on the Day of Judgment – – – (like one (Muslim) who guarded there from)?” Like 39/22.

39:29: “…most of them (non-Muslims) have no knowledge.” But Muslims of course have, and are much better people. This included not one single new thought promoting the life of man for some 900 years in the Muslim world. Actually, there is a well-known Hadiths saying something like ‘All new ideas (“bida” in Arab) are heresy (“wrong teaching”), all heresy is wrong, and everything that is wrong leads to hell’. Islam found a way to moderate it a little, though: If a new idea – a “bida” – is in accordance with the Koran and Hadith and all decisions are made by consensus among the leading learned Muslims through the times (such decisions are called “ijima” in Arab), the new idea may – may – be a acceptable “bida”.

Under such conditions, it is not strange that few new ideas emerges – and none that is not meant to question (or at least not conflict with) old ideas, not to mention with the religion.

Year 616-618 AD, Surahs 40:

40:58: “Not equal are the blind (non-Muslim*) and those who (clearly) see (Muslims)”. According to the Koran the answer is obvious – and the self-esteem of Muslims increased. There is a feeble feeling, though, that something is wrong. On the ones side a book relying only on the words of a somewhat special man, and a book containing lots and lots of the hallmarks of cheating, swindling and deceiving. On the other a culture that in spite of mistakes – f. ex. taking colonies like each and every empire and even smaller powers have done throughout all times, included Arabia and other Muslim states – has brought most humans a very much better life the last few hundred years – just in medicine the poor today often are better off than the richest king was just 100 years ago.

As far as we know, not a single of those medicines originated in the Muslim world. Neither did one single of the other new ideas. But, in a society where only the next world (real or imagined or wrong -as it is built on a book with lots of mistakes) really counts, the Muslims after all are the elite class?

40:58: “…nor are (equal) those who believe and work deeds of righteousness (Muslims) and those who do evil (non-Muslims)”. This is obvious.

Year 616-618 AD, Surahs 41:

41:33: “Who is better in speech than one who calls (men) to Allah, works righteousness, and (is Muslim)?” Of course “we” – the Muslims – are best. Muhammad did not know the word psychology, we think, but he understood people and how to pep them up.

41:40: “Which is better? – he (the non-Muslim) that is cast into the Fire, or he (the Muslim) that comes safe through…” Does anyone feel a wisp the word “discrimination” or the lack of proof?

Year 616-618 AD, Surahs 45:

45:21: “What! Do those who seek after evil ways (non-Muslims) think We (Allah) shall hold them equal with those who believe (Muslims) and do righteous deeds – – -?” Except for that there is a question whether it is a righteous deed, for a thousand years to give their believers education only in Muslim sciences – all knowledge that was needed to study Islam, mainly religion and Arab and related knowledge – but block as many believers as possible from all “foreign sciences” – all other knowledge, which was the case at least from al-Ghazali (“The Incoherence of the Philosophers”) at the end of the 11th century (in Spain about 100 years later). Except for things like that, may be the Koran is right: Muslims are at the top of quality.

Year 618-619 AD, Surahs 67:

67:22: “Is then one who walks headlong, with face groveling (non-Muslims), better guided – or one who walks evenly on a Straight Way (Muslim)?” A rhetorical question with an obvious answer where Muslims of course are the best… Especially, when they obey Allah and make war or in other ways kill or suppress non-Muslims – they are the on top of the social and moral human pyramids?

Year 620 earliest, Surahs 34:

34:33: “We (Allah) shall put yokes on the necks of the Unbelievers: it would only be a requital for their (ill) Deeds.” That is what those bad people deserve. They are not better.

Year 621 AD, Surahs 6:

6:21: “Who doth more wrong than he (non-Muslim) who invented a lie (said something else than Muhammad) against Allah and His Signs (none of whom is logically valid proofs)?” No, it is not possible to be more wrong than the non-Muslims. “We” (Muslims) are morally and in other ways far superior. But, do Islam really have a moral or ethical philosophy? In that case, we have never seen it. They have some commandments and codes from Muhammad – and some of them are horrible. That is all we have found.

Year 621 AD, Surahs 28:

28:61: “Are (these two) alike? – one to whom We (Allah) have made a goodly promise (Muslim) – – – and one (non-Muslim) who We have given the good things of this life, but who (will go to Hell)?” Another rhetoric question with an obvious answer enlarging “our” self-esteem and feelings of righteousness. But with an addition: many religions have a problem with non-believers or not-so-good believers, who have a good life in this world so as Islam. But the Koran explains it very simply like some other religions: “It is Allah who in his unfathomable wisdom has decided it like that – to try the bad person or for some other reason only Allah understands – but Allah is going to punish him in the next life”. A fulfilling explanation that leaves the others envy half satisfied, and their gloating also half satisfied – and our self-esteem at least on par or a little in plus. You find this argument in variations time and again in the Koran.

AND FINALLY: Allah has never – EVER – proved his existence or any connections to his holy prophet. There only were words… The cheater and the betrayer (e.g. Khybar and its peace-talk delegation). All belief systems, both older and newer, are of wishful thinking of imaginary psychological constructs & fanciful delusions.

To be continued…


10 thoughts on “Understanding Al-iLah – The god of Muhammad, Islam and Muslims (Part 1)

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  4. Raj,

    Why did you post the “shit” in the shape of the word Allah??

    How does that help you with your agenda of destroying Islam?

    Was it your “gu” that came out from your insides to reveal to you that that you should believe in Allah??

    Why did you stoop that low to demean yourself? Have you lately been smelling and photoing other people’s shits?

    All the time you seemed to be a dude with integrity and rationality. Huh!!

    Take a serious note that you may have enraged all the Muslims and must be feeling happy for that mockery not knowing that you are a miserable rat who could be easily traced by anyone! Remember, your “shit” message can spread with the wind very fast, all over the Muslim world and the results could be inconceivable. Through your intense animosity of Islam you have started provoking and profaning Allah just to assure and ascertain your fake alleges that Islam is an intolerant religion, from the responses by muslims to your profanity of Allah. In fact, your fake computerized “shit” photo needs no comment!

    Why put yourself in jeopardy? You ought to post articles that can withstand the force of debates, the cons of Islam but not to profane and blaspheme any religion including Islam.

    Do you intend this sight to be meant for visits by non Muslims only??


  5. Allah is Anthropomorphic: Size, Shape and Looks of Allah by Abul Kasem 21 April, 2006 ABSTRACT This essay painstakingly analyses Allah, the Islamic God. Allah is at the core of religion of Islam. Every act, every ritual, every Jihad, every Islamic incursion, every Islamic bloodshed, every Islamic law is designed for only one purpose—to please Allah. Who is this Allah? Where did He come from? Where does He live now? What are His daily activities? What is His temperament? What are His likes and dislikes? Does Allah have an Executive Office?—how does that office look like? Does Allah have a Throne? Does Allah have a physical body or is Allah just amorphous—without any corporeal existence –but only an invisible, incomprehensible, a never-to-be-understood entity? These are extremely blasphemous questions. None the less, these questions haunt every Muslim’s mind from the moment he hears Allah’s name to the moment of his last breath. But he never gets any satisfactory answers to these perennial questions. For eternity, Allah would like to remain an enigma to the Muslims. Islamists always advance this mysterious, elusive nature of Allah as the epitome of Islam—Allah has to remain obscure, recondite and ephemeral—this is what makes Islam great—the hide-and-seek game of Allah with His devotees. This essay is an attempt to remove this antediluvian, outdated and irrational method to understanding Allah. The most surprising result of this enquiry about Allah is that: Allah is not at all a mystery. He is just like any one of us—a living and breathing human being, so to speak! Allah is not esoteric; neither is He hiding from us. He lived, yes, with Muhammad, but did not die with Muhammad. Based on irrefutable evidences, this essay will tell the story of Allah and how Muhammad advanced Allah as a deity to be worshipped—just because he wanted to be worshipped—in the name of Allah, in the manner the Pagans worshipped Allah. Introduction The very first two words in every sura (chapter) in the Holy Qur’an, are Bismi Allah (sometimes written as Bismillah or Basmallah) which, translated into English mean: In the name of Allah. The only exception is sura 9 (Sura Baraat or Sura at-Taubat). The reason why these two words (I mean, Bismi Allah) are missing from sura 9 is that it is a continuation of sura 8 (spoils of war)—during compilation of the Qur’an (probably, during Uthmanic compilation), this sura (sura 9) was separated out from sura 8. There are no word/words holier than those two words. In Islamic parlance those two words are of supreme importance in almost all religious rituals. Truly, Bismi Allah are the key words which unravel the mystery of Allah. Bismi Allah words are routine incantation in Islamic rituals, such as: attending a prayer, marriage, eating, drinking, reading, writing, sleeping, waking up, walking down, sitting down, standing up, running, playing, urinating, kissing, copulating, sitting for an examination, visiting a doctor, setting out on a journey….and what not. These two extraordinarily holy words are also invoked during Islamic beheadings, slaughtering an animal, waging a war (Jihad), defecating and visiting graves. Allahu Akbar, the other two sanctified Islamic words, almost always follows Bismi Allah. Thanks to the Islamist terrorists and the snuff videos on Islamic beheading and decapitation shown in the Internet, I do not have to write much about these two other hallowed words of Islam. The world has already associated these two words (I mean Allahu Akbar) with terror, evil and murder. Curiously, one might notice that the most consecrated words, i.e. Bismi Allah are not announced during the cacophony of Islamic cry for prayer (Azan). Instead, we hear Allahu Akbar (three times) at the beginning and towards the end. Bismi Allah words are not Muhammad’s invention. The Pagans in Mecca used those two sanctified words, though infrequently, in most of their rituals as they also considered Allah to be their supreme deity or God. They called this ritual Tasmiya. Its probable origin is from the Jewish custom of invoking HaShem when they recited the Torah. It is not clear, who invented this custom—but it is certainly Muhammad who steadfastly instituted this tradition (invoking Bismi Allah) as a compulsory universal practice for the Muslims. As you proceed diligently with this essay, you will understand why Muhammad had made it obligatory to cite Bismi Allah in every occasion I mentioned previously. Thus, it is important that we meticulously dissect these two valuable words: Bismi Allah, which are the roots of all Islamic acts. This will help us to understand the mindset of Allah, which in turn is the key in understanding the state of mind of Muhammad and his religion, Islam. This is the prime focus of this essay—to decipher an esoteric Allah and His inseparable partner Muhammad. The readers might find that certain sections are repetitive—to some extent. It happened simply because the Qur’an and ahadith are repetitive. I tried to avoid repetition as far as possible, but in a few cases this (repetition) could not be avoided all together. SPECIAL THANKS During the last few months I have received many e–mails from readers who were very curious to know why I have been so silent. I am so flabbergasted by their show of sincere warmth, unbound encouragement and good advice, that I shall be doing injustice to these readers if I fail to formally thank them for their genuine love, affection and understanding. I never knew that my writings could move people. I thought my essays were trash—to be thrown in the dustbin of history. The only rewards, so far, I received were hate mails—hundreds of them and threats to kill me—just for speaking my mind. So, when I read e–mails from those readers who truthfully demonstrate their empathy for me, it brings much ardor in me—the ardor to continue with my pen. I feel very emotional reading those heartfelt e–mails. A few readers were concerned about my safety when the Islamist terrorists issued death fatwa to slaughter us. Their list also included I. To these genuine well–wishers, I would like to extend a big thanks.—You are the persons for whom I would like to leave all my dedications—so posterity will not forget what we stood for, –a world devoid of religious anarchy and religious bigotry. You are the harbingers—the fulfillment of the longing for a world free of religious insanity. Let us now begin with the ‘Beginning’—the nature of Allah. Allah is for real Muslims often think of their God, Allah, to be someone who is omnipresent, omnipotent, shapeless, infallible, ever awake and rules the world through His absolute commandments as enshrined in the holy Qur’an. According to many Islamist apologists, none could comprehend the nature and extent of Allah, the Islamic God. Many of these erudite scholars write prolix essays filled with Islamic drivels. They will write, extolling various features of the invisible, vacuous, incomprehensible and impenetrable Allah. Imbued with utmost devotion to Allah, many Muslims, five times a day, will seek bounty and forgiveness from Him. What do you think this means? Obviously, there is some kind of contradiction here. On one hand, during conversing loosely, they will portray the concept of Allah as someone who is unreal and ephemeral, while during prayer they will consider Allah to be like a real entity who has eyes to see, ears to hear and has the physical means to deliver to the faithful all their requests. So, what is the correct situation—a non-physical, unreal, unseen, ephemeral Allah or a real, temporal, physical deity? Believe it or not: when we search Islam’s main sources: the Qur’an, Hadith, Sirah (Muhammad’s biography) and Sharia, we invariably derive one simple conclusion—that Allah, truly is for real, that He, Himself had written the Qur’an with His own hands and that He, truly metes out justice and bounties with His own hands. To begin with, an impeccable Islamic scholar, Ali Dashti contends that most Islamic scholars believe that just like human beings Allah has limbs and organs (68:42).This means: Allah is anthropomorphic!—with real hands, eyes, ears, legs, feet and body! Quoting from an immaculate Islamic source (Abu ‘Amer), Ali Dashti says that according to real Islam Allah has limbs and organs like a human being. Abu ‘Amer uses verse 68:42 to describe the true nature of Allah. Here is what Dashti writes: Abu ‘Amer ol–Qorashi, a Moor from Majorca who died at Baghdad in 524/1130, declared that it was heretical to understand the sentence “There is nothing similar to Him” in verse 9 of sura 42(osh–Showra) (this is verse 42:11in the Qur’an translation of Yusuf Ali—author’s note) as meaning what it says; it meant, in his opinion, that nothing resembles God in respect of His divinity, because “God possesses limbs and organs like yours and mine.” As proof of God’s possession of such limbs and organs, Abu ‘Amer ol-Qorashi cited the description of the last judgement in verse 42 of sura 68 (ol-Qalam) “On the day when the leg will be bared and they will he bidden to kneel but cannot,” and then slapped his thigh and said, “God has legs just like mine.” (Dashti, 1994, p.158) That’s right. Allah has limbs and organs just like us—the human beings, which He had created with His own hands. Here are those two verses which confirm that Allah is truly anthropomorphic. YUSUFALI: (He is) the Creator of the heavens and the earth: He has made for you pairs from among yourselves, and pairs among cattle: by this means does He multiply you: there is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things). [042.011] YUSUFALI: The Day that the shin shall be laid bare, and they shall be summoned to bow in adoration, but they shall not be able,- [Q 068.042] Ali Dashti continues: Allah is anthropomorphic! According to Ghazali, Mutazillites were infidels and heretics. Allah will step down from His throne—said Ghazali.(Dashti, 1994, p. 157). Sourcing Imam Ahmad b. Taymiya, one of the highest among the Islamic scholars, Dashti further writes that he (Ibn Taymiya) repudiated Ghazali (the most celebrated Islamic scholar—many Muslims consider Ghazali’s work as next to the Qur’an) who did not have a clear idea about Allah—believing that Allah is not a physical entity. Ibn Taymiya even called Ghazali a heretic. Ibn Taymiya strongly believed that Allah is really anthropomorphic! He will step down from His throne! Dashti writes: Many Moslems, however, have had rigid minds. Such men only accepted interpretations which are confirmed by Hadiths, and they considered any use of reason in religious matters to be misleading and impermissible. They took the above quoted Qur’anic phrases literally and believed that God possesses a head, mouth, eyes, ears, hands, and feet just like those of human being. In the opinion of Abu Ma’mar al–Hodhali (d. 236/850), a preacher in Baghdad, anyone who denied this belief was an infidel. Adherents of the school of the famous traditionist and lawyer Ahmad b. Hanbal (164/780–241/855) have stuck to the same unthinking literalism ever since. The school’s chief later exponent, Ahmad b. Taymiya, was so fanatical that he called the Mo’tazelites infidels and Ghazali a heretic; on one celebrated occasion, after quoting the Qor’an in a sermon, he said to the congregation as he stepped down from the pulpit of the Great Mosque at Damascus, “God will step down from His throne in the same way as I am stepping down from this pulpit.” .(Dashti, 1994, p. 157) Dashti also writes that Muslim scholars agree that the Qur’an is not a miracle. Al-Maari wrote an imitation of the Qur’an. He writes: It is widely held that the blind Syrian poet Abu’l ‘Ala ol Maari (368/979–450/1058) wrote his Ketab ol fusul wa’ ghayat, of which a part survives, an imitation of the Qor’an (Dashti, 1994, p. 48). Here is another proof that Allah is for real and possesses human qualities (anthropomorphic): Enoch walked with Allah 19:56-57, 21:85-86 (Tabari, 1988, p. 6.42). Allah walks with human beings (in Paradise, of course)—this is impossible to believe. But look what the Qur’an says! YUSUFALI: Also mention in the Book the case of Idris: He was a man of truth (and sincerity), (and) a prophet: [Q 019.056] YUSUFALI: And We raised him to a lofty station. [Q 019.057] In foot note 55 of volume vi of Tabari we read: A Prophet mentioned in the Qur’an as “raised to high station “ by God (19:56f, sec21:85). He is usually identified with the Biblical Enoch (Akhnukh) who “walked with God, and he was not, for God took He” (genesis 5:24).” (Tabari, 1988, p. 6.42). This means Allah surely has feet, just like humans, to be able to walk with a human being such as Prophet Enoch (Idris). Further evidence that Islamic God, Allah is a living entity, alive and going about His daily business, like other creatures is glimpsed from a hadith. In Sahih Bukhari we read: People used to worship Muhammad till he died, Abu Bakr then claimed that Muhammad was dead but if people worshipped Allah then Allah is alive…(Sahih Bukhari, 5.59.733) Volume 5, Book 59, Number 733: Narrated ‘Aisha: Abu Bakr came from his house at As-Sunh on a horse. He dismounted and entered the Mosque, but did not speak to the people till he entered upon ‘Aisha and went straight to Allah’s Apostle who was covered with Hibra cloth (i.e. a kind of Yemenite cloth). He then uncovered the Prophet’s face and bowed over him and kissed him and wept, saying, “Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you. By Allah, Allah will never cause you to die twice. As for the death which was written for you, has come upon you.” Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: Abu Bakr went out while Umar bin Al-Khattab was talking to the people. Abu Bakr said, “Sit down, O ‘Umar!” But ‘Umar refused to sit down. So the people came to Abu Bakr and left Umar. Abu Bakr said, “To proceed, if anyone amongst you used to worship Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but if (anyone of) you used to worship Allah, then Allah is Alive and shall never die. Allah said:–“Muhammad is no more than an Apostle, and indeed (many) apostles have passed away before him..(till the end of the Verse)……Allah will reward to those who are thankful.” (3.144) By Allah, it was as if the people never knew that Allah had revealed this Verse before till Abu Bakr recited it and all the people received it from him, and I heard everybody reciting it (then). Narrated Az-Zuhri: Said bin Al-Musaiyab told me that ‘Umar said, “By Allah, when I heard Abu Bakr reciting it, my legs could not support me and I fell down at the very moment of hearing him reciting it, declaring that the Prophet had died.” The holy Qur’an also confirms that Allah is a living being—like any other creatures. Here is a verse from the Qur’an: YUSUFALI: (All) faces shall be humbled before (Him) – the Living, the Self-Subsisting, Eternal: hopeless indeed will be the man that carries iniquity (on his back). [Q 020.111] One of the most enigmatic episode of Muhammad’s life was his alleged journey from his temporary sleeping place, Umm Hani’s (Muhammad’s cousin sister) bed room to the mosque (this is questionable, of course, since no mosque existed at Jerusalem during Muhammad’s time) of Jerusalem, Bait al Maqdis and then to Paradise, to meet Allah. Ibn Sa’d writes that on the night of this journey Muhammad went to Umm Hani’s house, offered isha prayer (night prayer) with her, boarded aBuraq, a half horse–half–female shaped angel creature and departed for Jerusalem and from there took another flight with this Buraq (or in some version climbed a long ladder) and ascended to Paradise to meet Allah. (Ibn Sa’d, 1972, p. 1.248). We might laugh at this infantile imaginary travel which could only be conceived by a person in hallucination under the influence of a strong drug. But look! What one of Islam’s principal sources, Sahih Bukhari writes: The night journey to Bait ul-Maqdis (Isra) was a real sight and not a dream (context of verse 17:60) …(Sahih Bukhari, 5.58.228). This is a lengthy hadith, I am quoting just the relevant part. Volume 5, Book 58, Number 228: Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: Regarding the Statement of Allah” ………………………………………. “And We granted the vision (Ascension to the heavens) which We made you see (as an actual eye witness) was only made as a trial for the people.” (17.60) Ibn Abbas added: The sights which Allah’s Apostle was shown on the Night Journey when he was taken to Bait-ulMaqdis (i.e. Jerusalem) were actual sights, (not dreams). And the Cursed Tree (mentioned) in the Quran is the tree of Zaqqum (itself). The verse (17:60) mentioned in this Sahih (authentic) hadith reads: YUSUFALI: Behold! We told thee that thy Lord doth encompass mankind round about: We granted the vision which We showed thee, but as a trial for men,- as also the Cursed Tree (mentioned) in the Qur’an: We put terror (and warning) into them, but it only increases their inordinate transgression! [Q 017.060] Those two sources prove that Allah is for real and He really has His residence in Paradise. Had Allah been everywhere, as many Islamists believe, it was not necessary for Muhammad to embark on this trip. Allah could simply manifest Himself to Muhammad in any form and talked to him. Allah could do this in an instant. So why should He waste time and resource to send a Buraq to Muhammad just to accost him? Therefore, we can safely derive this conclusion: Allah is for real. He is physical and has a fixed residence, wherever it might be. Allah is human-shaped; He looks like Adam Muhammad had great difficulty to explain to the illiterate, uninformed and gullible Bedouin folks his twisted concept of Allah. Those desert folks always associated their concept of god/s to a physical entity. So, when Muhammad introduced the idea of a single, unseen Allah, they were very confused and vehemently questioned his sanity,—since no one had ever seen this Allah (although they believed in a supreme deity whom they also called Allah). Therefore, Muhammad had to associate his Allah with some living creatures; and what could be better than associating the mien of Allah with the first and the original human being, Adam? He told his people that Allah did really look like Adam. Here is a hadith from Sahih Bukhari: Adam was shaped completely like Allah; Adam was 60 cubits (30m) in height…(Sahih Bukhari, 8.74.246) Volume 8, Book 74, Number 246: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “Allah created Adam in his complete shape and form (directly), sixty cubits (about 30 meters) in height. When He created him, He said (to him), “Go and greet that group of angels sitting there, and listen what they will say in reply to you, for that will be your greeting and the greeting of your offspring.” Adam (went and) said, ‘As-Salamu alaikum (Peace be upon you).’ They replied, ‘AsSalamu-‘Alaika wa Rahmatullah (Peace and Allah’s Mercy be on you). So they increased ‘Wa Rahmatullah’ The Prophet added ‘So whoever will enter Paradise, will be of the shape and form of Adam. Since then the creation of Adam’s (offspring) (i.e. stature of human beings is being diminished continuously) to the present time.” In Sahih Muslim we read: Adam is the image of Allah… (Sahih Muslim, 32.6325) Book 032, Number 6325: This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Huraira and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Ibn Hatim Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) is reported to have said: When any one of you fights with his brother, he should avoid his face for Allah created Adam in His own image. To avoid the embarrassment, in the print version of Sahih Muslim, the translator of Sahih Muslim, the Islamist scholar, ‘Abdul Hamid Siddiqi, in a foot note, writes confusing remarks which could only confirm the absolute perplexity that Muhammad had created with his own concept of Allah. The learned ‘Abdul Hamid Siddiqi writes: We have translated Surathi as His image instead of His form as Allah has no definite form and shape. The words that Allah created Adam in his own image do not mean that he has been fashioned after His image or form, as the finite being cannot be fashioned after the pattern of Infinite. Here the words “His image” have been used in order to give an idea of the high dignity of man and of his being the roof and crown of his creation and of His being the vicegerent of the Lord upon the earth. According to some scholars, the pronoun “his” does not stand for God, but for the person who has been beaten on the face. According to this elucidation, the translation of the sentence should be: For Allah created Adam in his shape (the shape in which the victim too has been created). It is therefore the duty of everyone not to beat the face which is a replica of the face of Adam. (Sahih Muslim, 2004, p. 4.1660, foot note 2872). Note that the translator imposes his own version of concept of Allah, which clearly contradicts the Qur’an’s idea of Allah and the ahadith in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. Obviously, Professor ‘Abdul Hamid is as confused as any Bedouin could have been during Muhammad’s time! Allah noticed the nakedness of Adam and Eve (Ibn Sa’d, 1972, p. 1.22). Yes, Allah was embarrassed seeing a naked Adam. As Allah looked like Adam, He surely should be! Allah could never be naked. So, He instructed Adam and Eve to be properly dressed. On this, Ibn Sa’d writes: When Allah noticed the nakedness of Adam and Eve, He commanded him to slaughter a male sheep out of eight pairs which Allah had cast from the heavens. So Adam took the male sheep and slaughtered it. Then he obtained its wool which Eve span (sic). Then Adam along with Eve weaved it. So Adam weaved a garment for himself and a shift and a head covering For Eve. Both of them dressed themselves in their garments and met together on the day of Jam’a and therefore the day was named jam’a; they recognised each other at ‘arafah and so it was named ‘Arafah. Allah has arms, legs and ears but the idols do not have them From the previous discussions, we should have very little doubt about this. Muhammad’s Allah, does indeed take after a human being. Since Allah looks like a human being, it then follows logically that Allah must have all the physical features of a human being. Thus, in the Qur’an we read that Allah has eyes and ears…(42:11). YUSUFALI: (He is) the Creator of the heavens and the earth: He has made for you pairs from among yourselves, and pairs among cattle: by this means does He multiply you: there is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things). [Q 042.011] Allah has hands; He created Adam with His own hands…(38:75, 48:10). YUSUFALI: (Allah) said: “O Iblis! What prevents thee from prostrating thyself to one whom I have created with my hands? Art thou haughty? Or art thou one of the high (and mighty) ones?” [Q 038.075] YUSUFALI: Verily those who plight their fealty to thee do no less than plight their fealty to Allah: the Hand of Allah is over their hands: then any one who violates his oath, does so to the harm of his own soul, and any one who fulfils what he has covenanted with Allah,- Allah will soon grant him a great Reward. [Q 048.010] Commenting on the above two verses, the translator of Sahih Bukhari, Dr Muhammad Muhsin Khan writes that those two verses confirm two hands for Allah, but there is no similarity for them. Readers might be confounded at such a convoluted remark, but hold on, Dr Muhsin writes further: This is not like as some people think that Allah is present everywhere—here, there and even inside the breasts of men (Khan, 1994, p. 1067). Dr Muhsin Khan has confirmed what I wrote beforehand that Allah is anthropomorphic and He has a fixed residence. In Sahih Bukhari we read that Allah does have real physical hands. But His hands are so huge that He could grab the entire earth in one of His hands. Perhaps this hugeness of Allah’s hand is the dissimilarity with humans’ hand when Dr Muhsin Khan mentioned Allah has hands but there is no similarity for them. Let us read this hadith. Allah will hold the whole earth and roll all the heavens up in his right hand…(Sahih Bukhari, 6.60.336) Volume 6, Book 60, Number 336: Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “Allah will hold the whole earth, and roll all the heavens up in His Right Hand, and then He will say, ‘I am the King; where are the kings of the earth?”‘ Allah has huge feet. He puts His foot over hell–fire. That’s right. Commenting on verse 50:30, Sahih Bukhari says exactly this. Let us first read verse 50:30. YUSUFALI: One Day We will ask Hell, “Art thou filled to the full?” It will say, “Are there any more (to come)?” [Q 050.030] Here are the ahadith from Sahih Bukhari: 50:30 Allah puts his foot over hell fire…(Sahih Bukhari, 6.60.371, 373) Volume 6, Book 60, Number 371: Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, “The people will be thrown into the (Hell) Fire and it will say: “Are there any more (to come)?’ (50.30) till Allah puts His Foot over it and it will say, ‘Qati! Qati! (Enough Enough!)\'” Volume 6, Book 60, Number 373: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “Paradise and the Fire (Hell) argued, and the Fire (Hell) said, “I have been given the privilege of receiving the arrogant and the tyrants.’ Paradise said, ‘What is the matter with me? Why do only the weak and the humble among the people enter me?’ On that, Allah said to Paradise. ‘You are My Mercy which I bestow on whoever I wish of my servants.’ Then Allah said to the (Hell) Fire, ‘You are my (means of) punishment by which I punish whoever I wish of my slaves. And each of you will have its fill.’ As for the Fire (Hell), it will not be filled till Allah puts His Foot over it whereupon it will say, ‘Qati! Qati!’ At that time it will be filled, and its different parts will come closer to each other; and Allah will not wrong any of His created beings. As regards Paradise, Allah will create a new creation to fill it with.” Here are two similar ahadith from Sahih Muslim: Allah would place his foot on hell when the hell is filled with sinners…(Sahih Muslim, 40.6823, 6825). Book 040, Number 6823: Anas b. Malik reported that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said that the Hell would continue to say: Is there anything more, until Allah, the Exalted and High, would place His foot therein and that would say: Enough, enough, by Your Honour, and some parts of it would draw close to the other. Book 040, Number 6825: ‘Abd al-Wahhab b. Ata’ reported in connection with the words of Allah, the Exalted and the Glorious: We would say to Hell on the Day of Resurrection: Have you been completely filled up? and it would say: Is there anything -more? And he stated on the authority of Anas b. Malik that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: (The sinners) would be thrown therein and it would continue to say: Is there anything more, until Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, would keep His foot there- in and some of its part would draw close to the other and it would say: Enough, enough, by Thy Honour and by Thy Dignity, and there would be enough space in Paradise until Allah would create a new creation and He would make them accommodate that spare place in Paradise. Even the translators of The Noble Qur’an and Sahih Bukhari, Drs al–Hilali and Muhammad Muhsin Khan, having included this hadith in a foot note admits the physical nature of Allah’s foot (Hilali and Khan, 1999, The Noble Qur’an, p. 679, foot note 1). Embarrassed with such mindless, cock and bull ahadith many contemporary Islamist scholars twist the meaning of those ahadith and contain that those allusion of the physical attributes of Allah are metaphorical. Here is a comment from none but the hadith scholar Professor ‘Abdul Hamid Siddiqi. Hand is here used not in the literal sense, but in metaphorical sense. (Siddiqi. 2004, p. 1.151, footnote 388) In the holy Qur’an (35:41) we read that Allah grasps the sky and the earth firmly lest they move away from their places; only Allah could guarantee the continued existence of the heavens and the earth. This verse clearly depicts the hugeness of Allah’s hand and personifies Allah’s might so much so, that only Allah has the physical strength to keep perfectly the earth in its position of rest. Here is the verse 35:41 PICKTHAL: Lo! Allah graspeth the heavens and the earth that they deviate not, and if they were to deviate there is not one that could grasp them after Him. Lo! He is ever Clement, Forgiving. Allah does have the physical ability of hearing and seeing. Here is a hadith fromSunaan Abu Dawud: Sunaan Abu Dawud, Vol. III, Hhadith Number 4710 Abu Yunus Sulaim b. Jubair, client of Abu Hurairah, said: I heard Abu Hurairah recite this verse (4:58): “Allah doth command you to render back your trusts to those to whom they are due”…up to “For Allah is He who heareth and seeth all things. He said: I saw the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) putting his thumb on his ear and finger on his eye. Abu Huraira said: I saw the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) reciting this verse and putting his fingers. Ibn Yunus said that al Muqri said: “Allah hears and sees” means that Allah has the power to hearing and seeing. As usual, embarrassed with such incredulous hadith, the translator of Sunaan Abu Dawud, Professor Ahmad Hasan, in a foot note, vehemently denies the existence of Allah’s physical organs like ears and eyes. He rather blames the Jahmiyyah (heretics) for such an idea. In a foot note, he writes: The Jahmiyyah did not believe in Divine attributes. This tradition refuted their view. Allah does not have the organs of hearing and seeing, i.e. ears and eyes, but their power. (Hasan, 2001, p. 3.1324, foot note 4121). Needless to say, this is a prevarication by Professor Hasan to impose his personal opinion on unsuspecting readers. Let us read what Tirmidhi Hadith says about Allah’s finger. In The Noble Qur’an, Dr Muhammad Taqi-uddin Al Hilali and Dr Muhammad Muhsin Khan comments on verse 7:143 which talks about Allah’s conversation with Moses. This verse reads as follows: YUSUFALI: When Moses came to the place appointed by Us, and his Lord addressed him, He said: “O my Lord! show (Thyself) to me, that I may look upon thee.” Allah said: “By no means canst thou see Me (direct); But look upon the mount; if it abide in its place, then shalt thou see Me.” When his Lord manifested His glory on the Mount, He made it as dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon. When he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to Thee! to Thee I turn in repentance, and I am the first to believe.” [Q 007.143] Here is the comment by these two impeccable Islamist scholars: The appearance of Allah to the mountain was very little of Him. It was approximately equal to the tip of one’s little finger as explained by the Prophet when he recited this verse (This Hadith is quoted by At Tirmidhi) (Hilali and Khan, 196, p. 225, foot note 1) Muhammad was so convinced of the anthropomorphic nature of Allah that he even compared the limbs of the idols of the Arab Pagans to those of Allah. Ridiculing the idols of the Bedouin polytheists, he told them that their idols’ limbs were useless, whereas Allah’s hands, eyes and feet are real and workable. Let us read verse 7:194-196 from the holy Qur’an: Idols have no legs to walk, no hands to hold, no eyes to see and no ears to hear; you may try in vain to call on them to smite Allah (this means that Allah has feet, hands and ears)…7:194–196: YUSUFALI: Verily those whom ye call upon besides Allah are servants like unto you: Call upon them, and let them listen to your prayer, if ye are (indeed) truthful! [Q 7.194] YUSUFALI: Have they feet to walk with? Or hands to lay hold with? Or eyes to see with? Or ears to hear with? Say: “Call your ‘god-partners’, scheme (your worst) against me, and give me no respite! [Q 7.195] YUSUFALI: “For my Protector is Allah, Who revealed the Book (from time to time), and He will choose and befriend the righteous [Q 7.196] Muhammad was adamant that his Allah was for real; that is, Allah does have physical limbs. To strengthen his claim he compared the eye of Dajjal (anti Christ) to that of Allah. He claimed that Dajjal is one-eyed, but Allah is not. Here is a hadith from Sahih Bukhari: Dajjal is one-eyed but Allah is not…(Sahih Bukhari, 4.55.553) Volume 4, Book 55, Number 553: Narrated Ibn Umar: Once Allah’s Apostle stood amongst the people, glorified and praised Allah as He deserved and then mentioned the Dajjal saying, “l warn you against him (i.e. the Dajjal) and there was no prophet but warned his nation against him. No doubt, Noah warned his nation against him but I tell you about him something of which no prophet told his nation before me. You should know that he is one-eyed, and Allah is not one-eyed.” Sahih Muslim writes that Allah is not deaf; He can talk and listen and he is really an entity—a physical entity, to be precise, just the likes of a human being. Let us read this hadith from Sahih Muslim: Allah is not deaf or absent; the treasure of Paradise is reciting ‘there is no might and no power but that of Allah’…(Sahih Muslim, 35.6528) Book 035, Number 6528: Abu Musa reported that he (and his other companions) were climbing upon the hillock along with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) and when any person climbed up, he pronounced (loudly):” There is no god but Allah, Allah is the Greatest.” Thereupon Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: Verily, you are not supplicating One Who is deaf or absent. He said: Abu Musa or Abdullah b Qais, should I not direct you to the words (which form) the treasure of Paradise? I said: Allah’s Messenger, what are these? He said:” There is no might and no power but that of Allah.” Allah will shake hands. Yes, that’s correct. Allah does have arms to shake hands with the His ardent faithful followers. Here is a hadith from Sunann ibn Majah: Sunaan ibn Majah, Vol. I Hadith Nnumber 104 ‘Ubayy b. Ka’b (Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said, “The first person with whom Allah will shake hands (on the Day of Judgment), will be ‘Umar and he will be the first man to whom Allah will pay salutation (say: Assalamu ‘alaika) and he will be the first man whom he will hold with his Hand and make him enter the Paradise. According to Al-Zawa’id, its isnad is daif. It contains in it Dawud b. ‘Ata al Madani and all the scholars are unanimous about his du’f (weakness). The other transmitters are reliable and sound. As Suyuti has said, “Hafiz ‘Imad ud-Din b. Kathir in his Jami al Masanid has said: This hadith is highly munkar (disagreeable) and is not far from being a maudu (fabricated) hadith. In case we are wondering about the content of the second paragraph of this hadith, here is the explanation. According to Ibn Majah, a person, named Dawud b ‘Ata al Madani who is one of the narrators of this hadith is not a very reliable narrator of hadith. The other narrators are reliable and the text of the hadith is acceptable, though this might be weak. Another opinion is that this hadith could be fabricated. The bottom line is: though this hadith might be weak and controversial there is no compelling reason to reject this hadith, out of hand, or render it totally un authentic. At best, it is controversial; at worst it is a weak hadith, but not completely inauthentic. Here is another proof from the holy Qur’an that Allah does indeed have physical eyes to see what His Prophets are doing. In fact, Allah instructed Noah to construct an arc right in front of His eyes. After inspecting Noah’s accomplishment, Allah vouched the complete annihilation of the wrong-doers. Here is the verse 011:036-037 YUSUFALI: It was revealed to Noah: “None of thy people will believe except those who have believed already! So grieve no longer over their (evil) deeds. [Q 011.036] YUSUFALI: “But construct an Ark under Our eyes and Our inspiration, and address Me no (further) on behalf of those who are in sin: for they are about to be overwhelmed (in the Flood).” [Q 011.037] Allah’s two hands are outstretched After Muhammad had migrated to Medina, he remained in penury. Many of his followers went hungry for days and depended on peoples’ charity for their daily living. To placate his critics, especially the Jews, Muhammad insisted on the abundance supply form His Allah. This was not forthcoming; so the Jews said that Muhammad’s Allah is, after all, not so rich On this, Muhammad claimed that the Jews had falsely said that “Allah’s hand” is tied up; in reality both His hands are outstretched. This means that Allah does have two hands This claim of Allah’s two physical hands has been recorded in the Quran: YUSUFALI: The Jews say: “Allah’s hand is tied up.” Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for the (blasphemy) they utter. Nay, both His hands are widely outstretched: He giveth and spendeth (of His bounty) as He pleaseth. But the revelation that cometh to thee from Allah increaseth in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. Amongst them we have placed enmity and hatred till the Day of Judgment. Every time they kindle the fire of war, Allah doth extinguish it; but they (ever) strive to do mischief on earth. And Allah loveth not those who do mischief. [Q 005.064] With His own two outstretched hands Allah created Adam. Having done so, Allah was greatly dismayed that Iblis, the Satan, refrained from worshipping His own hands’ creation, Adam. The holy Qur’an confirms that Allah indeed created Adam with His own two hands. Let us read verse 38:75: PICKTHAL: He said: O Iblis! What hindereth thee from falling prostrate before that which I have created with both My hands? Art thou too proud or art thou of the high exalted? [Q 38:75] Not only that the holy Qur’an confirms the two physical hands for Allah, it also says that Allah will use His two outstretched hands to fold up the heavens (universe)—much like a person who folds a piece of mat or rug with his two hands. After folding up the heavens with His two outstretched hands, He will then hold them (the universe) in His right hand! Here is the Qur’an talking about Allah’s Hand. On the resurrection day, the whole earth will be within the fistful of Allah; He will fold up the heavens (universe) inside His right hand (39:67). YUSUFALI: No just estimate have they made of Allah, such as is due to Him: On the Day of Judgment the whole of the earth will be but His handful, and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand: Glory to Him! High is He above the Partners they attribute to Him! [Q 039.067] Allah’s hand holds the balance of justice Muhammad insisted that His Allah has hands and with one of His hands, Allah holds the balance of justice. It is much like the picture or sketch one might have seen of a judge who holds a balance of justice in one of his/her hands and a sword in another. Muhammad wanted his followers to have a vivid picture of the uprightness of his Allah. So, he had to use this similarity, which he might have seen in some inscriptions of Roman justice system. Let us read this hadith from Sahih Bukhari: Volume 6, Book 60, Number 206: Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said, “Allah said, ‘Spend (O man), and I shall spend on you.” He also said, “Allah’s Hand is full, and (its fullness) is not affected by the continuous spending night and day.” He also said, “Do you see what He has spent since He created the Heavens and the Earth? Nevertheless, what is in His Hand is not decreased, and His Throne was over the water; and in His Hand there is the balance (of justice) whereby He raises and lowers (people).” Sahih Bukhari also confirms that Allah has a right hand and a left hand. On His left hand is the balance of justice. Nothing is mentioned what Allah holds in His right hand. One may imagine what He holds in His right hand must be very huge—probably, the earth’s population or a huge sack of money or a bounty. This hadith does not mention the content of Allah’s right hand, except that it is full. Let us read this hadith: Allah’s right hand is full, on the other hand He holds the balance of justice, His throne is over the water…(Sahih Bukhari, 9.93.515) Volume 9, Book 93, Number 515: Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “The Right (Hand) of Allah Is full, and (Its fullness) is not affected by the continuous spending night and day. Do you see what He has spent since He created the Heavens and the Earth? Yet all that has not decreased what is in His Right Hand. His Throne is over the water and in His other Hand is the Bounty or the Power to bring about death, and He raises some people and brings others down.” (See Hadith No. 508) Allah has shin Please do not laugh. We already read that Allah has legs, feet, eyes, hands. To confirm further that Allah is truly anthropomorphic, Muhammad insisted that not only Allah has feet, he even has shin. Verse 68:42 of the holy Qur’an says that on the resurrection day Allah will lay bare His shin for the unbelievers to prostrate; but they will fail to do so. Let us read verse 68:42 YUSUFALI: The Day that the shin shall be laid bare, and they shall be summoned to bow in adoration, but they shall not be able,- [Q 068.042] A hadith in Sahih Bukhari says that Allah will, indeed, open His Shin to the unbelievers. This hadith is very long; I shall quote only the relevant part: Volume 9, Book 93, Number 532s: Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri: …Then the Almighty will come to them in a shape other than the one which they saw the first time, and He will say, ‘I am your Lord,’ and they will say, ‘You are not our Lord.’ And none will speak: to Him then but the Prophets, and then it will be said to them, ‘Do you know any sign by which you can recognize Him?’ They will say. ‘The Shin,’ and so Allah will then uncover His Shin whereupon every believer will prostrate before Him and there will remain those who used to prostrate before Him just for showing off and for gaining good reputation. These people will try to prostrate but their backs will be rigid like one piece of a wood (and they will not be able to prostrate). Then the bridge will be laid across Hell.” We, the companions of the Prophet said, “O Allah’s Apostle! What is the bridge?… The above hadith says quite unmistakably that on the Resurrection Day there will be no problem in seeing Allah in His physical form; He will be recognized by His shin. Allah has a very noble, handsome face We might wonder: with stretched arms, legs feet, bared shin and protruding ears how will Allah look like. This is also described in the holy Qur’an. Just like a handsome and dignified person, Allah also has a majestic, bountiful and honourable face. Let us read verse 55:26–27. YUSUFALI: All that is on earth will perish: [Q 055.026] YUSUFALI: But will abide (for ever) the Face of thy Lord,- full of Majesty, Bounty and Honour. [Q 055.027] Let us read another verse. This verse confirms that Allah holds His bounties in His hand. YUSUFALI: “And believe no one unless he follows your religion.” Say: “True guidance is the Guidance of Allah: (Fear ye) Lest a revelation be sent to someone (else) Like unto that which was sent unto you? or that those (Receiving such revelation) should engage you in argument before your Lord?” Say: “All bounties are in the hand of Allah: He granteth them to whom He pleaseth: And Allah careth for all, and He knoweth all things.” [Q 003.073] Dr Takiuddin al-Hilali and Dr Muhammad Muhsin Khan, the translators of The Noble Qur’an, commenting on this verse, write: All that has been revealed in Allah’s Book (the Qur’an) as regards the (Sifat) Qualities of Allah the Most high, like the face, eyes, hands, Shins (Legs), his coming, His rising over His Throne (Istawa) and others, or all that Allah’s Messenger qualified Him in the true authentic Prophet’s Ahadith (narrations) as regards His Qualities like (Nuzul), His descent or His laughing and others, the religious scholars of the Qur’an and the Sunnah believe in these Qualities of Allah and they confirm that these are really His Qualities, without Tawil (interpreting their meanings into different) or Tashbih (giving resemblance) or similarity in any specific creatures) or (Ta’til) (i.e., completely ignoring or denying them, i.e., there is no Face, or Eyes or Hands, or Shins for Allah). These qualities befit or suit only for Allah Alone, and He does not resemble any of (His) creatures. As Allah’s Statement (in the Qur’an): (1) “There is nothing like him, and he is the All-Hearer, the All- Seer.” (V.42:11).” (2) “There is none comparable unto Him.” (V.112-4) (Hilali and Khan, 1996, p. 91, foot notes 1 and 2). I quoted those few words from two impeccable Islamic scholars to be fair. If anything we could conclude from the above comment it will be: the Qur’an is a minefield of ambiguities, incoherence and contradictions. Those two scholars have simply confirmed this truth. You will learn more of Allah’s contradictions in another part of this essay. Allah shows His face only to the dead Muslims; the unbelievers will not see His face To confuse the faithful Muslims, Muhammad’s Allah simply avoids to show His Handsome, Majestic Face to the unbelievers. Only the believers (i.e., the Muslims) will see His face. Let us read verse 83:13–16: YUSUFALI: When Our Signs are rehearsed to him, he says, “Tales of the ancients!” [Q 83.13] YUSUFALI: By no means! but on their hearts is the stain of the (ill) which they do! [Q 083.014] YUSUFALI: Verily, from (the Light of) their Lord, that Day, will they be veiled. [Q 083.015] YUSUFALI: Further, they will enter the Fire of Hell. [Q 083.016] The reason why Muhammad had to resort to this marvellous trick to entice people to Islam is not difficult to fathom. This sura is an early Meccan sura, the time when Muhammad was very weak and just had about a score or so followers. The majority pagan Quraysh, when asked Muhammad to describe his Allah, he failed. It was because the pagans already had a version of Allah of their own (more on this in a separate part). They could not accept Muhammad’s description of Allah. Angry and frustrated, Muhammad simply rebuked the pagans for not accepting his Allah and he resorted to cursing them with the denial of Allah’s blessings. Please note: in the previous section, we noted that Allah will show His Shin to the infidels. One might wonder why Allah has to hide His Face to the unbelievers when they could easily view Allah’s naked Shin. This is, yet another enigma of the Qur’an. Allah speaks like a human If we believe what the previous two impeccable Islamist scholars (Hilali and Khan) opined about the anthropomorphic nature of Allah, then the Qur’an must be wrong. In several verses of the Qur’an we read that Allah did talk like a human being. He, as a fire, spoke with Moses (27:9). On a spoken command from Allah, Moses’ stick turned into a snake. Frightened, Moses turned tail; but Allah called back Moses (27:9–10, 28:31). How was it possible for Moses to hear Allah’s voice if Allah did not use the same language as a human would to communicate verbally with Moses? If this is not convincing enough, there is more surprises. The holy Qur’an says that a fearful Moses heard a voice from a tree: it was Allah. Allah called Moses in His own voice. No angel or jinn was there to convey Allah’s messages to Moses. Allah Himself spoke with Moses (28:30). On another occasion, the holy Qur’an maintains, that Allah indeed called Moses in the valley of Tuwa (79:15–16). Let us read those verses from the Qur’an: YUSUFALI: But when he came to the (fire), a voice was heard: “Blessed are those in the fire and those around: and glory to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. [Q 027.008] YUSUFALI: “O Moses! verily, I am Allah, the exalted in might, the wise!…. [Q 027.009] YUSUFALI: “Now do thou throw thy rod!” But when he saw it moving (of its own accord)as if it had been a snake, he turned back in retreat, and retraced not his steps: “O Moses!” (it was said), “Fear not: truly, in My presence, those called as messengers have no fear,- [Q 027.010] YUSUFALI: But when he came to the (fire), a voice was heard from the right bank of the valley, from a tree in hallowed ground: “O Moses! Verily I am Allah, the Lord of the Worlds…. [Q 028.030] YUSUFALI: “Now do thou throw thy rod!” but when he saw it moving (of its own accord) as if it had been a snake, he turned back in retreat, and retraced not his steps: O Moses!” (It was said), “Draw near, and fear not: for thou art of those who are secure. [Q 028.031] YUSUFALI: Has the story of Moses reached thee? [Q 079.015] YUSUFALI: Behold, thy Lord did call to him in the sacred valley of Tuwa:- [Q 079.016] Here is a hadith from Sunaan Abu Dawud, which tells us that Allah indeed spoke directly with Moses without any messengers between them. The funny part is: this was revealed by Adam to Moses when they were arguing in Paradise. Let us read this hilarious hadith: Sunaan Abu Dawud, volume 3, hadith number 4685: ‘Umar b. al-Khattab reported that Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying: Moses said: My Lord, show us Adam who caused us and himself to come out from Paradise. So Allah showed him Adam. He asked: Are you our father, Adam? Adam said to him: Yes. He said: Are you the one into whom Allah breathed of His spirit, taught you all the names, and commanded angels (to prostrate) and they prostrated to you? He replied: Yes. He asked: Then what moved you to cause us and yourself to come out from Paradise? Adam asked him: And who are you? He said: I am Moses. He said: You are the Prophet of Banu Israi’l to whom Allah spoke from behind a screen, appointing no messenger between you and Him. He said: Yes. He asked: Did you not find that that was decreed in the Book (records) of Allah before I was created? He replied: Yes. He asked: then why do you blame me about a thing for which Divine had already passed before me? The apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: So Adam got the better of Moses in argument (peace be upon them). Allah had talked face to face to a jihadist As per the Islamic rule, when a suicide bomber gives up his life in a killing mission he goes straight to Paradise. He does not need to wait for the Judgment Day, linger for Allah’s decision and then be sent to his rightful abode. After his death, the jihadist (in this case the suicide bomber) instantly meets Allah and Allah talks to him face to face. This proves that Allah speaks like a human being and accosts the diehard jihaditsts just the way we do in this world. Here is a hadith from Ibn Majah: Sunaan ibn Majah, Vol I, Hadith number 190: Talha b. Khirash is reported to have said, “I heard jabir b. ‘Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) as saying: As Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. Haram was killed on the day of Uhud (battle), Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) met me and said, “O Jabir should I not tell you what Allah said about your father?” Yahya in his hadith has reported (these words): O Jabir, what is the matter that I see you broken hearted…?” He said, “I told him: Allah’s Messenger, my father has been martyred and he left behind some dependants and a debt.” He (the Holy Prophet) said, “Should I not give you the glad-tidings of that with which Allah met your father?” He said, “Yes, Allah’s Messenger.” He (the Holy Prophet) said, “Allah has never talked with anyone but from behind a curtain, but he talked with your father face to face and said, “O My bondsman, desire from Me, I shall grant you.” He said, “My Lord, (I wish) that You give a new life to me and I am killed for Thine sake for the second time. Upon this, the Lord, Hallowed be He said: It has already been decided by me that he will not return to it (a new life.” He said, “My Lord, so convey (this) to those left behind me.” The narrator said that Allah sent down (the verse): Never, they are living with their Lord, they are given provision (3:16). As Samadi said, “This hadith has not singularly been transmitted by Ibn Majah: neither in text nor in isnad. Tirmidhi has transmitted it in at Tafsir (i.e. chapter concerning the interpretation of the Qur’anic verses and suras and then has held it as a hasan gharib hadith. We do not know it except from the hadith of Musa b. Ibrahim from whom the eminent scholars of hadith have narrated it. To reinforce the contention that Allah grants special audience to the jihaditsts, Allah meets them in person immediately after their holy death. Here is another hadith from Sahih Bukhari. This hadith tells us that those Muslims slaughtered at Bir Mauna met Allah; it was in the Qur’an; later this verse was removed (Sahih Bukhari, 4.52.299) Volume 4, Book 52, Number 299: Narrated Anas: The people of the tribes of Ril, Dhakwan, ‘Usiya and Bani Lihyan came to the Prophet and claimed that they had embraced Islam, and they requested him to support them with some men to fight their own people. The Prophet supported them with seventy men from the Ansar whom we used to call Al-Qurra’ (i.e. Scholars) who (out of piety) used to cut wood during the day and pray all the night. So, those people took the (seventy) men till they reached a place called Bi’r-Ma’ana where they betrayed and martyred them. So, the Prophet invoked evil on the tribe of Ril, Dhakwan and Bani Lihyan for one month in the prayer. Narrated Qatada: Anas told us that they (i.e. Muslims) used to recite a Quranic Verse concerning those martyrs which was:– “O Allah! Let our people be informed on our behalf that we have met our Lord Who has got pleased with us and made us pleased.” Then the Verse was cancelled. When those young jihaditsts died at Bir Mauna, Gabriel informed Muhammad that the jihaditsts met Allah, they were pleased with Him and Allah was pleased with them; a verse was released on this; later the verse was cancelled (Sahih Bukhari, 4.52.57) Volume 4, Book 52, Number 57: Narrated Anas: The Prophet sent seventy men from the tribe of Bani Salim to the tribe of Bani Amir. When they reached there, my maternal uncle said to them, “I will go ahead of you, and if they allow me to convey the message of Allah’s Apostle (it will be all right); otherwise you will remain close to me.” So he went ahead of them and the pagans granted him security. But while he was reporting the message of the Prophet, they beckoned to one of their men who stabbed him to death. My maternal uncle said, “Allah is Greater! By the Lord of the Kaba, I am successful.” After that they attached the rest of the party and killed them all except a lame man who went up to the top of the mountain. (Hammam, a sub-narrator said, “I think another man was saved along with him).” Gabriel informed the Prophet that they (i.e. the martyrs) met their Lord, and He was pleased with them and made them pleased. We used to recite, “Inform our people that we have met our Lord, He is pleased with us and He has made us pleased” Later on this Quranic Verse was cancelled. The Prophet invoked Allah for forty days to curse the murderers from the tribe of Ral, Dhakwan, Bani Lihyan and Bam Usaiya who disobeyed Allah and his Apostle Those two ahadith tell us that the verse containing this episode was later removed from the Qur’an. We might wonder why? Here is the reason: in this (I mean the cancelled verse) verse the martyrs are talking and not Allah. Read the hadith carefully. If the Qur’an contained such a verse spoken by a human jihadist, the entire credibility of the Qur’an as the Words of Allah and consequently, the entire edifice of Islam will tumble. Muhammad was astute enough to understand this truth. So he acted accordingly—expunged the offending and potentially damaging verse from the Qur’an. A similar, but a longer version of this hadith can be read in Sahih Bukhari 5.59.421. Volume 5, Book 59, Number 421: Narrated Anas bin Malik : The Prophet invoked evil upon those (people) who killed his companions at Bir Mauna for 30 days (in the morning prayer). He invoked evil upon (tribes of) Ril, Lihyan and Usaiya who disobeyed Allah and His Apostle. Allah revealed a Quranic Verse to His Prophet regarding those who had been killed, i.e. the Muslims killed at Bir Ma’una, and we recited the Verse till later it was cancelled. (The Verse was 🙂 ‘Inform our people that we have met our Lord, and He is pleased with us, and we are pleased with Him.” Please note that to meet a physical Allah non-jihaditst Muslims have to die and wait till the Resurrection Day. Here are a few Qur’anic verses on this: On the resurrection day Allah will descend with ranks (row after row) of angels…89:22 YUSUFALI: And thy Lord cometh, and His angels, rank upon rank, [Q 089.022] When they meet Allah the believers’ salutation will be ‘peace’…33:44 YUSUFALI: Their salutation on the Day they meet Him will be “Peace!”; and He has prepared for them a generous Reward. [Q 033.044] On the resurrection day, Allah Himself will reply all questions…40:16 YUSUFALI: The Day whereon they will (all) come forth: not a single thing concerning them is hidden from Allah. Whose will be the dominion that Day?” That of Allah, the One the Irresistible! [Q 040.016] Please reflect on verse 40:16: who do you think is talking here—Allah or Muhammad? To dispel all the mumbo-jumbo of the apologist Islamic scholars, here is a hadith (sahih quoted partly because of its length) from Sahih Bukhari (8.76.577) which tells us unmistakably, that on the Resurrection Day the sun worshippers will follow the sun, the moon worshippers will follow the moon, the idol worshippers will follow their deities; Allah will appear to the Muslims in a shape and will lead them to cross the bridge over fire, then the wrong doers will be sent to hell and the true believers will be sent to Paradise. Volume 8, Book 76, Number 577: Narrated Abu Huraira: …Then Allah will come to then in a shape they know and will say, “I am your Lord.’ They will say, ‘(No doubt) You are our Lord,’ and they will follow Him. Then a bridge will be laid over the (Hell) Fire.” Allah’s Apostle added, “I will be the first to cross it… Here is another hadith which tells us that Allah is anthropomorphic—He does posses a shape and will be an entity—just like a flesh–and–blood being. You will definitely see Allah with your own eyes…(Sahih Bukhari, 9.93.530, 531) Allah is seated on a Throne with His angels guarding Him When we read the Qur’an describing the attributes of Allah, we are amazed that Muhammad had taken extreme care to describe his Allah. He compared Allah to a human king—just like the kings in many countries, seated on a huge throne and conducting His affairs from this throne (more on Allah’s throne in a later part of this essay). The Qur’an even tells us that Allah created His throne and then He walked to it and rose over it to take His seat. Read the following verses from the Qur’an. Allah created the heavens (first) and (then) the earth in six days then he rose over His throne…7:54 007.054 YUSUFALI: Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority): He draweth the night as a veil o’er the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds! Allah created the heavens (first) and (then) the earth in six days and (then) He firmly established himself on His throne (i.e. He moved to His throne from somewhere else)…57:4 YUSUFALI: He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and is moreover firmly established on the Throne (of Authority). He knows what enters within the earth and what comes forth out of it, what comes down from heaven and what mounts up to it. And He is with you wheresoever ye may be. And Allah sees well all that ye do. [Q 057.004] The angels (eight) will be by the side of Allah’s throne (octagonal in shape?)…69:17 YUSUFALI: And the angels will be on its sides, and eight will, that Day, bear the Throne of thy Lord above them. [Q 069.017] Like a security guard Allah watched Muhammad, Noah and other Prophets Allah watches Muhammad when he prays alone or in congregations…26:218-219 YUSUFALI: Who seeth thee standing forth (in prayer), [Q 26.218] YUSUFALI: And thy movements among those who prostrate themselves, [Q 26.219] YUSUFALI: For it is He Who heareth and knoweth all things. [ Q 026.220] Those few verses will give us the impression that Allah really lives above us and glances over all His creations—similar to the astronauts in an orbit who, from their windows of their spacecraft, glance on the mother planet (earth). Here are few more verses from the holy Qur’an on the visual glances of Allah high above from space. Allah is like a guardian on a watch-tower—always watchful…89:14 YUSUFALI: For thy Lord is (as a Guardian) on a watch-tower. [Q 089.014] Allah has two eyes; with His two eyes He saw Noah’s ark…54:13–14 YUSUFALI: But We bore him on an (Ark) made of broad planks and caulked with palm-fibre: [Q 054.013] YUSUFALI: She floats under our eyes (and care): a recompense to one who had been rejected (with scorn)! [Q 054.014] A hadith in Sunaan Ibn Majah tells us that Allah does indeed glance from above: Sunaan Ibn Majah, Vol. I, Hadith Number 184: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “When the inmates of Paradise will (enter) into their blessings, a light will suddenly shine upon them. Upon this, they will raise their heads (and see) that their Lord is glancing them from above. He (the Lord) will say, “Assalamu ‘alaikum (peace be upon you), O the inmates of the Paradise!” He said, “This refers to Allah’s words: The word from the Merciful Lord is: Peace (36:58).” He will look towards them and they will look towards Him and will not pay any attention to anything of the Divine favors as long as they will keep looking towards Him till He will hide (Himself) from them and His Light and His Blessings will last on them in their houses. In a foot note, Ibn Majah casts some doubt on the authenticity of this hadith. I quoted this hadith just to demonstrate that Muhammad did try to convince his followers about the watchful nature of his Allah. Even without this hadith, there are a number of verses in the Qur’an which unmistakably tell us that Allah has the ears to hear all conversations. Here is such a verse: Allah heard the complain that a woman brought to Muhammad regarding her husband; Allah hears all conversations…58:1 058.001 YUSUFALI: Allah has indeed heard (and accepted) the statement of the woman who pleads with thee concerning her husband and carries her complaint (in prayer) to Allah: and Allah (always) hears the arguments between both sides among you: for Allah hears and sees (all things). Witnessing a physical Allah is as certain as the observation of the sun and the moon There are many ahadith which tell us very clearly that Allah is a visible being, though one has to die to see Allah. Here are summaries of a few such ahadith. Readers are requested to verify these ahadith either with the online version of these ahadith or with the print version. Please note that there is no online version of Ibn Majah (or at least, I am yet to see one) and not all ahadith of Sunaan Abu Dawudare available on line. These ahadith, I have quoted in full. On the resurrection day you will see Allah like you see the sun or the moon on a clear sky …(Sahih Bukhari, 6.60.105) People will see Allah like a moon…(Sahih Bukhari, 9.93.529) Background to 50:39: when Muhammad looked at the full moon and said that you would see Allah just like you see the full moon…(Sahih Bukhari, 1.10.529, 547) You will see Allah as clearly as you see the moon and the sun; hooks will be used to punish the unbelievers; Muhammad, along with his followers will be the first to cross the bridge of hell; some sinners will stay in hell temporarily, some forever … (Sahih Bukhari, 1.12.770) Sunaan ibn Majah, volume 1, hadith number 178: Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “Do you crowd (and push one another) to see the moon of the night of the full moon?” they (the audience) said, “No,” whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said, “Similarly, you will not crowd to see y
    • Hi Lucky/Raj,

      Islam is only for the believers in Allah and Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and not for the non believers.

      “They will not cease to fight against you until they force you to renounce your faith—if they are able. But whoever of you recants and dies an unbeliever, his works shall come to nothing in this world and in the world to come. Such men shall be the tenants of Hell, wherein they shall abide forever. Those that have embraced the Faith, and those that have fled their land and fought for the cause of God, may hope for God’s mercy” (2:217–18).

      “Believers, do not make friends with any but your own people. They will spare no pains to corrupt you. They desire nothing but your ruin. Their hatred is evident from what they utter with their mouths, but greater is the hatred which their breasts conceal” (3:118).

      “Let not the unbelievers think that We prolong their days for their own good. We give them respite only so that they may commit more grievous sins. Shameful punishment awaits them” (3:178).

      “Believers, do not seek the friendship of the infidels and those who were given the Book before you, who have made of your religion a jest and a pastime” (5:57).

      “That which is revealed to you from your Lord will surely increase the wickedness and unbelief of many among them. We have stirred among them enmity and hatred, which will endure till the Day of Resurrection” (5:65).

      “They deny the truth when it is declared to them: but they shall learn the consequences of their scorn” (6:5).

      “Deaf and dumb are those that deny Our revelations: they blunder about in darkness. God confounds whom He will, and guides to a straight path whom He pleases.” (6:39)




        Abrogated Verses of the Quran

        Evidence from Islamic Sources

        We present here a list that highlights some of the many verses that have been abrogated. We are quite aware that not all Muslims believe that the Quran abrogates itself and would therefore reject the traditions presented here. Yet, the aim of our paper is to provide a handy list for Christians witnessing to or dialoguing with Muslims who do believe that the Quran abrogates itself. We want to provide evidence for those that do accept the authority of these sources. We chose to cite only the views of Muslim scholars where they identify the abrogated verses.
        But before we do so, we would like to cite Brother Mark’s quotation of Muslim scholar Ahmad Von Denffer regarding the conflicting views held by Muslim scholars over the precise nature of abrogation:
        Von Denffer defines it clearly as:
        “What is Abrogated?
        According to some scholars the Qur’an abrogates only the Qur’an. They base their view on suras 2:106 and 16:101. According to them the Qur’an does not abrogate the sunna nor does the sunna abrogate the Qur’an. This is, in particular, the view held by Shafi’i.
        Others are of the opinion that the Qur’an may abrogate the Qur’an as well as the sunna. They base their view on Sura 53:3-4.
        There is also the view that there are four classes of naskh:
        1 Qur’an abrogates Qur’an.
        2 Qur’an abrogates sunna.
        3 Sunna abrogates Qur’an.
        4 Sunna abrogates sunna.” (Ulum, Von Denffer, p. 107f)
        The ‘founding’ scholars couldn’t even agree in ‘basic principles’ over what abrogates what between the Sunnah and Qur’an!
        (Brother Mark, A ‘Perfect’ Qur’an, p. 230, online edition)
        Brother Mark continues:
        A number of citations from an article by A. Rippin on Naskh follow:
        – “Although the companions of Muhammad are reported to have discussed naskh, and even to have disagreed over the abrogation of a particular verse, references to the generation of the companions in the naskh literature are relatively infrequent.
        [[N.B. – Footnote 9 states: But see Ibn Salama, al-Nasikh wa ‘l-mansukh (Cairo 1315/1899), 142-3, where `Ali and Ibn ‘Abbas disagree over the abrogation of Q4/94; `Ali maintained that the verse was abrogated by Q4/115 and 4/48, while Ibn ‘Abbas held that it remained muhkama.”]] (p. 117)
        – “In classical texts on abrogation we frequently encounter references to disagreements among tabi’is over the status of a particular verse.
        For example, although the majority of scholars consider Q2/62 to have been abrogated by Q3/85, Mujahid ibn Jabr (d. 101/722) and al-Dahhak ibn Muzahim (d 105/723) considered the verse to be muhkama.” (p. 119)
        – “The number of verses that are considered to have been abrogated increased dramatically between the eighth and eleventh centuries (al-Zuhri mentions 42 abrogated verses, al-Nahhas 138, and Ibn Salama, 238), at which point an upper limit seems to have been reached (Ibn ‘Ata’iqi identifies 231 abrogated verses, and al-Farsi, 248). (p.122)
        – “al-Suyuti (d. 911/1505) recognised only twenty [20] instances of true abrogation and Shah Wali Allah (d 1762) reduced that number to five [5].
        [N.B. – Footnote 26 states: “these figures are mentioned in Ernest Hahn, ‘Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s The Controversy over Abrogation (in the Qur’an): An Annotated Translation, MW64 (1974), 124.]
        Ibn al-’Ata’iqi, on the other hand, while citing 231 instances of abrogation, appendixes the phrase wa fihi nazar, indicating doubt or uncertainty to his discussion of twenty-six [26] verses.”
        With such wide variations in understanding one must wonder how Muslim scholars can declare, like Ibn Salama, that ‘science of abrogation and abrogated verse’ is, in the investigation of the Qur’an, the starting point! Furthermore he states that one is ‘deficient’ (naqis) who, before mastering the doctrine of abrogation engages in a true (scientific) study of the Qur’an. [see Ibn Salama p 4-5] (p. 123)
        – “Anas ibn Malik (d. C. 92/710) for example, related that during the lifetime of Muhammad the believers used to recite a sura equal in length to sura 9 (‘Repentance’), but that he could only remember one verse from this sura, namely, If the son of Adam had two valleys made of silver…’”
        [[N.B. – Footnote 34 states: “Ibn al-’Ata’iqi, p. 23; cf. Ibn Salama, pp 10ff”]] (p. 125)
        – “There is also considerable disagreement over the scope of abrogation within the Qur’an itself. At one extreme, there were apparently certain people who argued that ‘the Qur’an does not contain either an abrogated or an abrogating verse’.
        [[N.B. – Footnote 38 states: “Ibn Salama, p. 26; cf. Al-Nahhas, pp 2-3”]], these people, according to Ibn Salama, ‘have deviated from the truth and by virtue of their lying, have turned away from God’. [[N.B.- Footnote 39 reads “Ibn Salama, p. 26]]
        At the other extreme were those scholars who maintained that any narrative, positive command, or prohibition in the Qur’an may be abrogated.” [[N.B. – Footnote 40 states: “Al-Nahhas, pp. 2-3”]] (p. 126)
        With the foregoing behind us we now turn our attention to the hadith collections usually considered to be authoritative by Sunni Muslims.
        Volume 6, Book 60, Number 13:
        Narrated Al-Bara:
        The Prophet prayed facing Bait-ulMaqdis (i.e. Jerusalem) for sixteen or seventeen months but he wished that his Qibla would be the Ka’ba (at Mecca). (So Allah Revealed (2.144) and he offered ‘Asr prayers (in his Mosque facing Ka’ba at Mecca) and some people prayed with him. A man from among those who had prayed with him, went out and passed by some people offering prayer in another mosque, and they were in the state of bowing. He said, “I, (swearing by Allah,) testify that I have prayed with the Prophet facing Mecca.” Hearing that, they turned their faces to the Ka’ba while they were still bowing. Some men had died before the Qibla was changed towards the Ka’ba. They had been killed and we did not know what to say about them (i.e. whether their prayers towards Jerusalem were accepted or not). So Allah revealed:– “And Allah would never make your faith (i.e. prayer) to be lost (i.e. your prayers offered (towards Jerusalem). Truly Allah is Full of Pity, Most Merciful towards mankind.” (2.143)
        Volume 6, Book 60, Number 32:
        Narrated ‘Ata:
        That he heard Ibn ‘Abbas reciting the Divine Verse:–
        “And for those who can fast they had a choice either fast, or feed a poor for every day..” (2.184) Ibn ‘Abbas said, “This Verse is not abrogated, but it is meant for old men and old women who have no strength to fast, so they should feed one poor person for each day of fasting (instead of fasting).
        The next two traditions disagree with Ibn Abbas’ claim.
        Volume 6, Book 60, Number 33:
        Narrated Nafi:
        Ibn ‘Umar recited:
        “They had a choice, either fast or feed a poor for every day …” and added, “This Verse is abrogated.”
        Volume 6, Book 60, Number 34:
        Narrated Salama:
        When the Divine Revelation:
        “For those who can fast, they had a choice either fast, or feed a poor for every day,” (2.184) was revealed, it was permissible for one to give a ransom and give up fasting, till the Verse succeeding it was revealed and abrogated it.
        Volume 6, Book 60, Number 53:
        Narrated Ibn Az-Zubair:
        I said to ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan (while he was collecting the Qur’an) regarding the Verse:– “Those of you who die and leave wives …” (2.240) “This Verse was abrogated by another Verse. So why should you write it? (Or leave it in the Qur’an)?” ‘Uthman said. “O son of my brother! I will not shift anything of it from its place.” (see also Number 60)
        Volume 6, Book 60, Number 54:
        Narrated Mujahi:
        (regarding the Verse):– “Those of you who die and leave wives behind. They – (their wives) — shall wait (as regards their marriage ) for four months and ten days).” (2.234)
        The widow, according to this Verse, was to spend this period of waiting with her husband’s family, so Allah revealed: “Those of you who die and leave wives (i.e. widows) should bequeath for their wives, a year’s maintenance and residences without turning them out, but if they leave (their residence), there is no blame on you for what they do with themselves provided it is honorable.’ (i.e. lawful marriage) (2.240).
        So Allah entitled the widow to be bequeathed extra maintenance for seven months and twenty nights, and that is the completion of one year. If she wished she could stay (in her husband’s home) according to the will, and she could leave it if she wished, as Allah says:
        “… without turning them out, but if they leave (the residence), there is no blame on you.” So the ‘Idda (i.e. four months and ten days as it) is obligatory for her.
        ‘Ata said: Ibn ‘Abbas said, “This Verse, i.e. the Statement of Allah: “…without turning them out …” cancelled the obligation of staying for the waiting period in her dead husband’s house, and she can complete this period wherever she likes.” ‘Ata’s aid: If she wished, she could complete her ‘Idda by staying in her dead husband’s residence according to the will or leave it according to Allah’s Statement:–
        “There is no blame on you for what they do with themselves.” ‘Ata’ added: Later the regulations of inheritance came and abrogated the order of the dwelling of the widow (in her dead husband’s house), so she could complete the ‘Idda wherever she likes. And it was no longer necessary to provide her with a residence. Ibn ‘Abbas said, “This Verse abrogated her (i.e. widow’s) dwelling in her dead husband’s house and she could complete the ‘Idda (i.e. four months and ten days) wherever she liked, as Allah’s Statement says:–“…without turning them out…”
        Volume 6, Book 60, Number 68:
        Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
        This Verse:–“Whether you show what is in your minds or conceal it …” (2.284) was abrogated.
        Volume 6, Book 60, Number 69:
        Narrated Marwan Al-Asghar:
        A man from the companions of Allah’s Apostle who I think, was Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Verse:– ‘Whether you show what is in your minds or conceal it …’ was abrogated by the Verse following it.”

        Book 001, Number 0228:
        It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that when it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him): To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth and whether you disclose that which is in your mind or conceal it, Allah will call you to account according to it. Then He forgives whom He pleases and chastises whom He Pleases; and Allah is over everything Potent” (ii. 284). the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) felt it hard and severe and they came to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and sat down on their knees and said: Messenger of Allah, we were assigned some duties which were within our power to perform, such as prayer, fasting, struggling (in the cause of Allah), charity. Then this (the above-mentioned) verse was revealed unto you and it is beyond our power to live up to it. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Do you intend to say what the people of two books (Jews and Christians) said before you: “We hear and disobey”? You should rather say: “We hear and we obey, (we seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord! and unto Thee is the return.” And they said: “We hear and we obey, (we seek) Thy forgiveness, Our Lord! and unto Thee is the return.” When the people recited it and it smoothly flowed on their tongues, then Allah revealed immediately afterwards: “The Apostle believes in that which is sent down unto him from his Lord, and so do the believers. Each one believes in Allah and His Angels and His Books and His Apostles, saying: We differentiate not between any of His Apostles and they say: We hearken and we obey: (we seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord! and unto Thee is the return” (ii. 285). When they did that, Allah abrogated this (verse) and the Great, Majestic Allah revealed: “Allah burdens not a soul beyond its capacity. It gets every good that it earns and it suffers every ill that it earns. Our Lord, punish us not if we forget or make a mistake.” (The Prophet said:) Yes, our Lord! do not lay on us a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us. (The Prophet said:) Yes, our Lord, impose not on us (burdens) which we have not the strength to bear (The Prophet said:) Yes, and pardon us and grant us protection! and have mercy on us. Thou art our Patron, so grant us victory over the disbelieving people” (ii. 286). He (the Lord) said: Yes.
        Book 003, Number 0675:
        Abu al. ‘Ala’ b. al-Shikhkhir said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) abrogated some of his commands by others, just as the Qur’an abrogates some part with the other.
        Book 004, Number 1317:
        Al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib reported: This verse was revealed (in this way): “Guard the prayers and the ‘Asr prayer.” We recited it (in this very way) so long as Allah desired. Allah, then, abrogated it and it was revealed: “Guard the prayers, and the middle prayer.” A person who was sitting with Shaqiq (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: Now it implies the ‘Asr prayer. Upon this al-Bara’ said: I have already informed you how this (verse) was revealed and how Allah abrogated it, and Allah knows best. Imam Muslim said: Ashja’i narrated it from Sufyan al-Thauri, who narrated it from al-Aswad b. Qais, who narrated it from ‘Uqba, who narrated it from al-Bara’ b. ‘Azib who said: We recited with the Prophet (may peace be upon him) (the above-mentioned verse like this, i. e. instead of Salat al- Wusta, Salat al-‘Asr) for a certain period, as it has been mentioned (in the above-quoted hadith).
        Hadith number in Sahih Muslim [Arabic only]: 1233
        ‘A’ishah’s Hadith, may Allah be pleased with her.
        Zurarah reported: Sa’d bin Hisham bin ‘Amir decided to participate in an expedition in the cause of Allah. When he came to Medina, he met some of its people. They dissuaded him from doing such a thing, and informed him that a group of six men had decided to do so during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) forbade them to do it, and asked: Is there not in me a good example for you? And when they narrated this to him (Sa’d bin Hisham), he returned to his wife, though he had divorced her and made (people) witness to his reconciliation. He then came to Ibn ‘Abbas and asked him about the Witr of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). Ibn ‘Abbas asked: Should I not lead you to one who knows best among the people of the world about the Witr of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)? He asked: Who is it? He (Ibn ‘Abbas) said: It is ‘A’ishah. So go to her and ask her (about Witr) and then come to me and inform me about the answer that she would give you. So I came to Hakim bin Aflah and requested him to take me to her. He said: I would not go to her, for I forbade her to speak anything (about the conflict) between the two groups, but she refused (to accept my advice) and went (to participate in that conflict). I (requested) him (Hakim) with an oath to lead me to her. So we went to ‘A’ishah and we begged permission to meet her. She granted us permission and we went in. She asked: Are you Hakim? (She recognized him). He replied: Yes. She asked: Who is there with you? He said: He is Sa’d bin Hisham. She asked: Which Hisham? He said: He is Hisham bin ‘Amir. She blessed him (‘Amir) with mercy from Allah and spoke good of him (Qatadah said that he died as a martyr in Uhud). I said: Mother of the Believers, tell me about the character of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). She asked: Do you not read the Qur’an? I said: Yes. Upon this she said: The character of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was the Qur’an. He said: I felt inclined to get up and not ask anything (further) till I die. But then I changed my mind and said: Inform me about the observance (of the Night Prayer) of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). She asked: Did you not recite: “O you wrapped up”? He said: Yes. She said:Allah, the Exalted and the Glorious, made the observance of the Night Prayer at the beginning of this surah obligatory. So the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and his Companions around him observed this (Night Prayer) FOR ONE YEAR. Allah held back the concluding portion of this surah FOR TWELVE MONTHS in the heaven till (at the end of this period) Allah revealed the concluding verses of this surah which lightened (the burden of this Prayer), and the Night Prayer became a supererogatory Prayer after being an obligatory one. I said: Mother of the Believers, inform me about the Witr of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) she said: I used to prepare tooth stick for him, water for his ablution, and Allah would rouse him to the extent He wished during the night. He would use the tooth stick, and perform ablution, and would offer nine rak’ahs and would not sit but in the eighth one and would remember Allah, and praise Him and supplicate Him, then he would get up without uttering the salutation and pray the ninth rak’ah. He would then sit, remember Allah, praise Him and supplicate Him and then utter a salutation loud enough for us to hear. He would then pray two rak’ahs sitting after uttering the salutation and that made eleven rak’ahs. O my son, but when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) grew old and put on flesh, he observed Witr of seven, doing in the two rak’ahs as he had done formerly, and that made nine. O my son, and when the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed the Prayer, he liked to keep on observing it, and when sleep or pain overpowered him and made it impossible (for him) to observe the Prayer at night, he prayed twelve rak’ahs during the day. I am not aware of Allah’s Prophet (may peace be upon him) having recited the whole Qur’an during one single night, or praying through the night till morning, or fasting a complete month except Ramadan. He (the narrator) said: I then went to Ibn ‘Abbas and narrated to him the Hadith (transmitted from her), and he said: She says the truth If I went to her and got into her presence, I would have listened to it orally from her. He said: If I were to know that you do not go to her, I would not have transmitted this Hadith to you narrated by her. (Source; Arabic text)
        Book 004, Number 1433:
        Anas b. Malik reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) invoked curse in the morning (prayer) for thirty days upon those who killed the Companions (of the Holy Prophet) at Bi’r Ma’una. He cursed (the tribes) of Ri’l, Dhakwan, Lihyan, and Usayya, who had disobeyed Allah and His Messenger (may peace be upon him). Anas said: Allah the Exalted and Great revealed (a verse) regarding those who were killed at Bi’r Ma’una, and we recited it, till it was abrogated later on (and the verse was like this):, convey to it our people the tidings that we have met our Lord, and He was pleased with us and we were pleased with Him”.
        Book 043, Number 7173:
        Sa’id b. Jubair reported: I said to Ibn Abbas: Will the repentance of that person be accepted who kills a believer intentionally? He said: No. I recited to him this verse of Sura al-Furqan (xix.): “And those who call not upon another god with Allah and slay not the soul which Allah has forbidden except in the cause of justice” to the end of the verse. He said: This is a Meccan versewhich has been abrogated by a verse revealed at Medina: “He who slays a believer intentionally, for him is the requital of Hell-Fire where he would abide for ever,” and in the narration of Ibn Hisham (the words are): I recited to him this verse of Sura al-Furqan: “Except one who made repentance.” (see also Sahih al-Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 285)

        Book 5, Number 1299:
        Narrated Abdullah Ibn Abbas:
        In Surat al-Muzzammil (73), the verse: “Keep vigil at night but a little, a half thereof” (2-3) has been abrogated by the following verse: “He knoweth that ye count it not, and turneth unto you in mercy. Recite then of the Qur’an that which is easy for you” (v.20). The phrase “the vigil of the night” (nashi’at al-layl) means the early hours of the night. They (the companions) would pray (the tahajjud prayer) in the early hours of the night.
        He (Ibn Abbas) says: It is advisable to offer the prayer at night (tahajjud), prescribed by Allah for you (in the early hours of the night). This is because when a person sleeps, he does not know when he will awake. The words “speech more certain” (aqwamu qilan) means that this time is more suitable for the understanding of the Qur’an. He says: The verse: “Lo, thou hast by day a chain of business” (v.7) means engagement for long periods (in the day’s work).
        Book 5, Number 1300:
        Ibn ‘Abbas said: When the opening verses of Surah asl-muzzammil (lxxiii.), were revealed, the Companions would pray as long as they would pray during Ramadan until its last verses were revealed. The period between the revelation of its opening and the last verses was one year.
        Book 12, Number 2275:
        Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:
        Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three monthly courses; and then said: And for such of your women as despair of menstruation, if ye doubt, their period (of waiting) shall be three months. This was abrogated from the former verse. Again he said: (O ye who believe, if ye wed believing women) and divorce them before ye have touched them, then there is no period that ye should reckon.

        Book 30, Number 30.3.17:
        Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Hazm from Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman that A’isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “Amongst what was sent down of the Qur’an was ‘ten known sucklings make haram’ – then it was abrogated by ‘five known sucklings’. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died, it was what is now recited of the Qur’an.”
        Yahya said that Malik said, “One does not act on this.”
        Comment: Neither the abrogating nor the abrogated verses on suckling appear in the text of the Quran today.
        Book 37, Number 37.5.4b:
        Yahya said that he heard Malik say, “This ayat is abrogated. It is the word of Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, ‘If he leaves goods, the testament is for parents and kinsmen.’ What came down about the division of the fixed shares of inheritance in the Book of Allah, the Mighty, the Exalted, abrogated it” …

        Ibn Kathir claims that S. 33:52 was abrogated by 33:50.
        More than one of the scholars, such as Ibn ‘Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ibn Zayd, Ibn Jarir and others stated that this Ayah was revealed as a reward to the wives of the Prophet expressing Allah’s pleasure with them for their excellent decision in choosing Allah and His Messenger and the Home of the Hereafter, when the Messenger of Allah gave them the choice, as we have stated above. When they chose the Messenger of Allah their reward was that Allah restricted him to these wives, and forbade him to marry anyone else or to change them for other wives, even if he was attracted to their beauty – apart from slave-girls and prisoners of war, with regard to whom there was no sin on him. THEN ALLAH LIFTED THE RESTRICTION STATED IN THIS AYAH AND PERMITTED HIM TO MARRY MORE WOMEN, but he did not marry anyone else, so that the favor of the Messenger of Allah towards them would be clear.
        Imam Ahmad recorded that ‘A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: ‘The Messenger of Allah did not die until Allah permitted (marriage to other) women for him.’ It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i in their Sunans. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Volume 8 (Surat Al-Ahzab, Verse 51 to the end of Surat Ad-Dukhan), abridged under a group of scholars under the supervision of Shaykh Safiur Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri [Darussalam Publishers & Distributors Riyadh, Houston, New York, London, Lahore; First Edition, September 2000], p. 21; cf. the online edition; bold and capital emphasis ours)
        According to Ibn Kathir Surah 9:5 abrogated every peace treaty that had been made with the idolaters:
        This is the Ayah of the Sword …

        Abu Bakr As-Siddiq used this and other honorable Ayat as proof for fighting those who refrained from paying the Zakah. These Ayat allowed fighting people unless, and until, they embrace Islam and implement its rulings and obligations… In the two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn ‘Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

        This honorable Ayah (9:5) was called the Ayah of the Sword, about which Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said, “It abrogated every agreement of peace between the Prophet and any idolator, EVERY TREATY, AND EVERY TERM.” Al-‘Awfi said that Ibn ‘Abbas commented: “No idolator had any more treaty or promise ever since Sura Bara’ah was revealed. The four months, in addition to, all peace treaties conducted before Bara’ah was revealed and announced had ended by the tenth of the month of Rabi’ Al-Akhir.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Volume 4 (Surat Al-A’raf to the end of Surah Yunus), by Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri, First Edition: May 2000, pp. 375, 377; cf. online edition; bold italic and capital emphasis ours)
        Here is our final example. Ibn Kathir states that Muhammad added an exception clause to Surah 4:95 as a result of a blind man complaining about the passage:
        Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said, “When the Ayah …

        was revealed, the Messenger of Allah called Zayd and commanded him to write it. Then, Ibn Umm Maktum came and mentioned that he was blind. Allah revealed …
        Al-Bukhari recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`di said, “I saw Marwan bin Al-Hakam sitting in the Masjid. I came and sat by his side. He told us that Zayd bin Thabit told him that Allah’s Messenger dictated this Ayah to him …

        Ibn Umm Maktum came to the Prophet as he was dictating that very Ayah to me. Ibn Umm Maktum said, `O Allah’s Messenger! By Allah, if I had power, I would surely take part in Jihad.’ He was a blind man. So Allah sent down revelation to His Messenger while his thigh was on mine and it became so heavy for me that I feared that my thigh would be broken. That ended after Allah revealed …
        .” This was recorded by Al-Bukhari. At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said …
        , refers to those who did not go to the battle of Badr and those who went to Badr. When the battle of Badr was about to occur, Abu Ahmad bin Jahsh and Ibn Umm Maktum said, `We are blind, O Messenger of Allah! Do we have an excuse’ The Ayah …
        was revealed. Allah made those who fight, above those who sit in their homes not hindered by disability. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Abridged) Volume 2, parts 3, 4, & 5 (Surat Al-Baqarah, Verse 253, to Surat An-Nisa, Verse 147), by Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri, First Edition: March 2000, pp. 555, 556; cf. the online edition)
        Although the last quotation above is, strictly speaking, not an example of abrogation, it does serve the purpose of showing how Muhammad was quick to change the revelation to suit his own purposes as well as the purposes of his community.
        We could provide more examples from Ibn Kathir, but for the sake of brevity these should suffice.
        Here is another example of Muhammad having to change the revelation to suit the purposes and fears of his followers:
        O Prophet! urge the believers to war; if there are twenty patient ones of you they shall overcome two hundred, and if there are a hundred of you they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they are a people who do not understand. For the present Allah has made light your burden, and He knows that there is weakness in you; so if there are a hundred patient ones of you they shall overcome two hundred, and if there are a thousand they shall overcome two thousand by Allah’s permission, and Allah is with the patient. S. 8:65-66 Shakir
        Ibn Ishaq, in his Sirat Rasulullah, reports that:
        Then He said: ‘O prophet, God is sufficient for thee and the believers who follow thee. O prophet, exhort the believers to fight. If there are twenty steadfast ones among you they will overcome a thousand unbelievers for there are hundred of you they will overcome a thousand unbelievers for they are senseless people,’ i.e. they do not fight with a good intention nor for truth nor have they knowledge of what is good and what is evil. Abdullah b. Abu Najih from ‘Ata’ b. Abu Ribah from ‘Abdullah b. ‘Abbas told me that when this verse came down it came as a shock to the Muslims who took it hard that twenty should have to fight two hundred, and a hundred fight a thousand. So God relieved them AND CANCELED THE VERSE WITH ANOTHER SAYING: ‘Now has God relieved you and He knows that there is weakness amongst you, so if there are a hundred steadfast they shall overcome two hundred, and if there are a thousand of you they shall overcome two thousand by God’s permission, for God is with the steadfast.’ (‘Abdullah) said, ‘When they numbered half of the enemy it was wrong for them to run from them; but if they were less than half they were not bound to fight and it was permissible for the, to withdraw.’ (Alfred Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad [Oxford University Press, Karachi, tenth impression 1995], p. 326; bold and capital emphasis ours)
        One wonders if in fact Allah had known that there was weakness amongst the Muslims then why even “reveal” the first passage instead of simply “revealing” the second, more easier one?

        The following list is taken from Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud Din Al-Hilali & Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan’s The Noble Qur’an – English Translation of the Meanings and Commentary, King Fahd Complex For the Printing of the Holy Qur’an, Madinah, K.S.A. You can find this list pretty much in all the Hilali-Khan’s Quranic translations, irrespective of date or publisher.
        1. 3:85 abrogates 2:62 and 5:69
        (V. 2:62) This Verse (and Verse 5:69), mentioned in the Qur’an should not be misinterpreted by the reader as mentioned by Ibn Abbas … (Tafsir At-Tabari) that the provision of this Verse was abrogated by the Verse 3:85 … (fn. 1, p. 14; see also fn. 1, p. 157)
        2. 9:29 abrogates 2:109
        (V. 2:109) The provision of this verse has been abrogated by the (V. 9:29). (Tafsir At-Tabari) (fn. 1, p. 21)
        3. 2:185 abrogates 184
        (V. 2:184) The provision of this Verse has been abrogated by the next Verse: 185, with a few exceptions, i.e. very old person, or pregnancy, etc. (fn. 1, p. 37)
        4. 9:36 abrogates 2:217 and 45:14
        (V. 2:217) The provision of this Verse has been abrogated by Verse 9:36. Jihad cf., (V. 2:216). (fn. 2, p. 46; see also fn. 1, p. 677)
        5. 5:90 abrogates 2:219
        (V. 2:219) The provision of this Verse concerning alcoholic drinks and gambling has been abrogated by the Verse 5:90. (fn. 1, p. 47)
        6. 4:12 abrogates 2:240
        (V. 2:240): The provision of this Verse has been abrogated by Verse (4:12). (fn. 1, p. 53)
        7. 24:2 abrogates 4:15-16
        (V. 4:15) The provision of this Verse has been abrogated by the Verses of (V. 24:2), ordaining lashing for the unmarried and stoning to death for the married, when four witnesses testify to the crime. (fn. 1, p. 109)
        We conclude this paper by presenting the following comments from Von Denffer:
        The Abrogated Verses
        There are, according to Ibn Salama, [Op cit., see pp.6-8 for the names of these suras.] a well-known author on the subject:
        • 43 suras with neither nasikh or mansukh.
        • 6 suras with nasikh but no mansukh.
        • 40 suras with mansukh but no nasikh.
        • 25 suras with both nasikh and mansukh.
        According to Suyuti’s Itqan there are 21 instances in the Qur’an, where a revelation has been abrogated by another.
        He also indicates that there is a difference of opinion about some of these: e.g. 4: 8, 24: 58, etc. [Itqan, II, pp.20-3; Kamal, op.cit., pp.101-9 also gives Suyuti’s complete list.]
        Some scholars have attempted to reduce the number of abrogations in the Qur’an even further, by explaining the relationships between the verses in some special ways, e.g. by pointing out that no legal abrogation is involved, or that for certain reasons the naskh is not genuine
        Shah Waliullah (d. 1759) the great Muslim scholar from India only retained the following 5 out of Suyuti’s 21 cases as genuine:
        Mansukh 2: 180 nasikh 4: 11, 12
        Mansukh 2:240 nasikh 2: 234.
        Mansukh 8:65 nasikh 8: 62.
        Mansukh 30:50 nasikh 33: 52.
        Mansukh 58: 12 nasikh 58: 13.
        A case listed by Suyuti, which has no direct legal implication is the following:
        Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: When the verse: ‘If there are 20 amongst you, patient and persevering, they will overcome two hundred’, was revealed, it became hard on the Muslims, when it became compulsory that one Muslim ought not to flee before 10 (non-Muslims) so Allah lightened the order by revealing: ‘but now Allah has lightened your (task) for He knows that there is weakness in you. But (even so) if there are 100 amongst you who are patient and persevering, they will overcome 200 (non-Muslims)’ (8: 66).
        So when Allah reduced the number of enemies that Muslims should withstand, their patience and perseverence against the enemy decreased as much as their task was lightened for them. [Bukhari, VI, No.176.]
        (Source: Ahmad Von Denfer, Ulum al Qur’an)
        We come to the end of our paper. We truly hope that this list will prove helpful to Christians as they endeavor to show Muslims why the Quran cannot be the Word of God.

        Recommended Reading
        Collected by Sam Shamoun

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