Twin suicide bombings in Pakistan kill at least 40


4847632-3x2-340x227PESHAWAR, Pakistan — Twin suicide blasts in a crowded market in western Pakistan on Friday killed at least 40 people and injured as least 100 in an apparent sectarian attack, residents said, presenting a fresh challenge to the administration of newly elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

The explosions occurred in Parachinar, a Shiite Muslim-dominated town west of Peshawar near the Afghan border, about two hours before the evening meal that breaks the daylong fast during the holy month of Ramadan. Shiite Muslims are a minority sect in Pakistan frequently attacked by the Sunni Muslim majority, many of whom don’t view them as true Muslims.

“There was a rush to buy food in the bazaar before Iftar when the explosions took place,” said Wazir Ali, an engineer living in Parachinar, who added that the apparently coordinated blasts occurred in rapid succession. Many of the dozens of injured victims taken to a government hospital were in critical condition, he said.

One explosion reportedly occurred near the town’s main mosque and another at a taxi stand, with some reports suggesting at least one of the devices was hidden on a motorcycle. There was no immediate claim of responsibility.

“The government is making arrangements to evacuate seriously injured people to Peshawar,” said an official, adding that army and paramilitary forces had set upcheckpoints on main roads leading out of Parachinar.

Muhammad Hussain, a resident in the city of about 50,000, said the number of injured overwhelmed the local hospital, leading to a severe shortage of beds. “Many of the injured were forced to lay out on the ground,” he added.

Dr. Abdullah Jan said the local hospital received at least 40corpses and treated at least 190 injured. In a triage operation, those with minor injuries were dischargedquickly to make room for people with more serious injuries, he added.

Residents said the bomb sites were littered with damaged handcarts and cars and broken glass from nearby shops. President Asif Ali Zardari condemned the blasts and expressed sympathy for the victim’s families.

In a separate attack, two other people were killed in a landmine blast in the Kurram Agency, where Parachinar is located.

Also on Friday, the Jundullah group of the Pakistani Taliban claimed responsibility for this week’s attack on the regional Inter-Services Intelligence spy agency headquarters in the eastern province of Sindh. The death toll in the Wednesday attack rose to nine.

A Jundullah spokesman told local media by telephone from an undisclosed location that four suicide bombers mounted the attack, which was carried out to avenge the killing of Taliban deputy chief Wali Ur Rehman, killed last month in a drone strike. The spokesman reportedly said the Pakistan intelligence officials were friends of the United States, which made them targets.

Much of mountainous northwest Pakistan, including the Kurram tribal region, has been plagued by violence for years as Taliban militants in the area have attempted to destabilize the Pakistani government by mounting attacks on security forces with suicide bombs and armed assaults.

Friday’s explosions are the latest challenge for Sharif, who campaigned on a promise to stem violence and fix the economy. Pakistan’s Taliban-led insurgency has killed thousands of civilians and security officials since 2007.

Washington considers the northwest tribal belt a refuge for Taliban and Al Qaeda militants plotting attacks on Western forces stationed in neighboring Afghanistan.

12 thoughts on “Twin suicide bombings in Pakistan kill at least 40

  1. ALLAH says, “If all the people become pious or impudent, I do not care”. Look at whole world, every one has the name of Islam. Some are adherents and some are jealous but Islam is pricking in the eyes of Non Muslims. If Islam is cruel religion then why are 160 crore Muslims in the world? After 9/11 attacks, a severe wave of hate and anger rose in USA. In that USA, thousands of people have accepted Islam.
    Hindus claim that Hinduism is older than Islam, why are the Muslims more than Hindus in the world. Islam is a power. You can do nothing with Islam except jealousy.

  2. Islam says “Murder of single human being(whether Muslim or Non Muslim) is like to kill whole of humanity. Similarly, saving a human is like to save whole of humanity”. Other than Islam, not a single religion preaches like this.

  3. A RIGHT PAIN IN THE ARSE:

    Suicide bummer

    SIMON HUGHES
    Chief Investigative Reporter
    Published: 21st September 2009

    A SUICIDE bomber tried to kill a Saudi prince by detonating TNT hidden up his BACKSIDE.

    Fanatic Abdullah Hassan Tali al-Asiri, 23, blew himself up — but his intended victim escaped with minor injuries.

    Last night astonished experts admitted: “We’ve never heard of anything quite like this before.” The target was the head of the security service in Saudi Arabia, Prince Mohammed Bin Nayef.

    Extremist Al-Asiri, who was on a local “Most Wanted” list, tricked his way into a meeting with him by saying he was turning his back on terror.

    But the hiding place of his explosive fooled security checks as he went inside the prince’s office in Jeddah.

    It is believed to have been detonated electronically. Weapons expert and former soldier Mike Yardley said: “Hiding it in a body cavity was obviously an attempt to defeat scanners and detectors. Thankfully on this occasion the victim escaped because the bomber’s body appears to have suppressed the force of the blast.”

    Prince Nayef, who had led an anti-terror crackdown in Saudi Arabia, injured his hand. He admitted: “He surprised me by blowing himself up.”

    The location of the hidden bomb was reported by the well-informed Dubai-based Al-Arabiya TV news network.

    Terror-supporting fanatics confirmed the report during online discussions that followed the attack.

    mpu

    TNT was the explosive used, according to the fanatics.

    Al-Qaeda then named the bomber and released his photograph together with a statement claiming responsibility for the attack.

    “I THOUGHT HE FARTED”!

  4. MOHAMMEDANS LOVE DEATH!

    MOHAMMEDANISM IS THE CULT OF DEATH!

    MOHAMMED IS THE PROPHET OF DEATH!

    ALLAH IS THE GOD OF DEATH!

    • Laila Banu, You have a wrong perception of Islam and profaning Islam through your pseudo tactics is a headache for us to answer you!!

      Not concerned

      Plum

      • YOU CANNOT PROFANE THAT WHICH IS EVIL! A FISH ROTS FROM THE HEAD DOWN: Meaning When an organization, religion or state fails, it is the leadership that is the root cause THE ORIGINS OF THE QUR’AN AN ENQUIRY INTO THE SOURCES OF ISLAM “Verily it is a glorious Qur’an written on a preserved table.” PREFACE This little book has no claim to originality. It is principally based upon the larger works of Geiger, Tisdall, Zwemer, Muir, Sell and Imadu’d-Din, and aims at presenting in a brief, and therefore inexpensive, form for Indian readers some of the results of the exhaustive studies of those scholars. If it helps any enquiring Muslims to understand more clearly the origin of the faith taught by Mohammad, it will have accomplished, the purpose, for which it was written. INTRODUCTION The word “Qur’an” is derived from the Arabic verb to read. It means “the reading,” or rather “that which is to be read.” It is taken from Suratu’l-‘Alaq (xcv. 1) which is said to have been the first Sura revealed to Mohammad. This word, first used to designate a portion only of the Qur’an, was subsequently, and is now, used to describe the whole collection of the “revelations” made to Mohammad. The Traditions relate many wonderful stories regarding the descent of inspiration upon Mohammad, of which ‘Ayesha, the favourite wife of the Prophet, has preserved the following: “The first revelations which the Prophet received were in true dreams, and he never dreamt but it came like the dawn of day. After this the Prophet became fond of retirement, and used to seclude himself in a cave in Mount Hira and worship there day and night …. till one day the angel came to him and said, ‘Read,’ but the Prophet said, ‘I am not a reader.’ ‘Then,’ said Mohammad, ‘he took hold of me and squeezed me as much as I could bear, and he then let me go and again he said, ‘Read,’ and I said, ‘I am not a reader.’ Then he took hold of me a second time and squeezed me as much as I could bear, and then let me go and said, ‘Read,’ and I said, ‘I am not a reader.’ Then he took hold of me a third time and squeezed me as much as I could bear and said ‘Recite! in the name of thy Lord who created; – Created man from the clots of blood; – Recite thou! for thy Lord is most Beneficent, who hath taught the use of the pen; – Hath taught man that which he knoweth not.’ Then the Prophet repeated the words himself, and with his heart trembling returned to Khadija and said, ‘Wrap me up! Wrap me up!’ and they wrapped him up in a garment until his fear was dispelled.” Such Traditions as the one related above, together with the oft-repeated statements of the Qur’an itself, form the basis of the Mohammedan belief that the Qur’an is the uncreated word of God which was communicated to Mohammad in a miraculous manner, chiefly by the mediation of the angel Gabriel. The Qur’an, it is said, was extant in the highest heaven from all eternity, written on the Lauhu’l-Mahfuz, or the “preserved table,” near the throne of God, and then sent down to the lowest heaven in the month of Ramadan, whence it was revealed to Mohammad piecemeal during a period of some twenty-three years. The Qur’an abounds in passages asserting its divine origin, and many are the anathemas hurled at those who refuse to acknowledge its claims. Bukhari and others have preserved numerous Traditions, for which we have no space here, relating the manner and occasion of these “revelations;” whilst later writers, such as Jalalu’d-Din as-Syuti, have classified and arranged the different modes of this divine inspiration such as, by the mediation of an angel, by suggestion in the heart of the Prophet, by dreams, by direct communication from God to the Prophet and so forth. We are not concerned here, however, with these details, and for the purposes of this enquiry it must suffice to state the bare fact that the Qur’an is held in the highest esteem by 1.5 billion people, taking the average estimate, who look upon it as the very word of God, existent in heaven from all eternity, and finally given to the world through the agency of his chosen messenger Mohammad. The purpose of this small book is to examine this stupendous claim, and to enquire whether the contents of the Qur’an may not be accounted for apart from this theory of divine inspiration. To the Mohammedan reader, whose mind revolts from the suggestion to subject the holy Qur’an to such a critical study, we commend the following words of Sir Syed Ahmad in his commentary on the Holy Bible. This Mohammedan scholar says, “I can by no means rest content with the superstitious notion that Scripture, and all Scriptures in general, even the Holy Qur’an, must not be subjected to critical examination. Would any one imagine for a moment that the most exalted of blessings bestowed upon man, namely, the faculty of reason, is given to us to remain idle? Can we conscientiously and faithfully profess to be Christians or Mohammedans’ without being able to give a reason for our belief, or without exercising our intellect to the utmost of our ability in the thoughtful and reverent consideration and examination of the precious volume which is given us as a guide of our faith? … On the contrary I would earnestly desire that those sacred writings be examined with fairness, and discussed with respectful but not impertinent freedom.” May the Muslim reader of this book, remembering the solemn and eternal nature of the issues involved, seek, in the spirit of Sir Syed Ahmad’s statement, to investigate with candid freedom the book upon which his faith is based. For ourselves we believe, and will try to prove that the Qur’an is nothing more than a heterogeneous collection of doctrines and stories already current in Arabia in the time of Mohammad, which were adopted and altered by him, and afterwards given out from time to time as a direct revelation from God. To these stories were added a number of practical precepts, both positive and negative, which were called forth by the exigences of the time. In accordance with this plan we purpose to discuss in order (1) Those portions of the Qur’an which Muhammad adopted from the heathen religions of his day; (2) Those portions which have a Jewish origin, both Biblical and Talmudic; (3) Those portions which Muhammad learned from his Christian contemporaries; and finally (4) Those portions of the Qur’an which were called forth by the special circumstances of the moment, and which were suited to support and sanction the varied actions of the Prophet. CHAPTER I HEATHEN BELIEFS AND PRACTICES INCORPORATED INTO THE QUR’AN Islam may be said to be the most eclectic Faith existent in the world. Certainly its author, Mohammad, made wide use of the varied materials which lay within his reach. It is generally supposed that Mohammad first brought to his fellow-countrymen the great truth of the unity of God. He himself seems to claim that it was revealed to him by direct revelation. Thus in Su’ratu’l-An’am (vi. 106) we read: “Follow thou, (O, Muhammad) that which hath been revealed to thee by thy Lord. There is no God but He.” But apart from the fact that there were communities of both Jews and Christians in Arabia at the time of Mohammad from whom he could learn the doctrine of the unity of God, the slightest acquaintance with Arabian history reveals the fact that the Supreme God was known and worshipped by the Arabs long before the time of Muhammad. In pre-Islamic literature “Ila’h” was used for any god, but “Al-Ilah,” contracted to “Allah,” was the name of the Supreme. The pagan poets Nabiga and Labid both repeatedly use the word “Allah” in the sense of the Supreme Deity, and the word is also used in that sense in the famous Mu’allaqat; whilst Ibn Hisham tells us that the Quraish, when performing the ceremony of Ihla’l, used the following words, “We are present in Thy service O God; Thou hast no partner except the partner of Thy dread; Thou ownest him and whatsoever he owneth.” It should, moreover, be remembered that for centuries before Mohammad the Ka’ba was known as “Bait-Allah,” the house of God; whilst the very name of Mohammad’s father ‘Abdu’llah shows the wide use of the word “Allah.” Sir Syed Ahmad in his work on the pre-Islamic Arabs freely acknowledges the existence of theistic sects amongst the Arabs before the time of Mohammad. He says: “There were two classes of theistic Arabs in the times of ignorance. The members of the second worshipped the true God, and acknowledged the judgment and the resurrection of the body at the last day, the immortality of the soul and its punishment and reward according to the actions done in the body. But they believed in neither prophets nor revelation.” Again, he says: “There were four theistic sects in existence in Arabia before Islam which acknowledged a revelation, and which were prevalent at various times, namely, the Sabians, the Hanifs, the Jews and the Christians.” The reader is now in a position to see that the conception of a Supreme Being known as Allah, was well known to the contemporaries of Mohammad, and without doubt to Mohammad himself also, who adopted it as the foundation of his system, and gave it out as a truth revealed from heaven. Little wonder that the Arabs should retort that he was simply rehearsing “Tales of the Ancients,” or that when Muhammad bade them believe in his revelations they should say, “He hath forged it himself.” The period immediately preceding the time of Mohammad witnessed the rise of a theistic sect known as the Hanifs, a band of earnest reformers who rejected in toto the idolatry of their fellows, and stood for the worship of the one true God alone. The principal of these seekers after truth were Waraqa ibn Naufal, ‘Ubaid Ullah, Ibn Jash, ‘Uthman ibn al-Huwairith and Zaid ibn ‘Amr. A Tradition records that “Zaid adopted this term Hanif at the instance of a Christian and of a Jew who both exhorted him to become a Hanif. Zaid having at the time renounced idolatry, and being unable to receive either Judaism or Christianity said, ‘What is a Hanif?’ They both told him it was the religion of Abraham who worshipped nothing but God. Upon this Zaid exclaimed, ‘O God, I bear witness that I follow the religion of Abraham.\'” Ibn Hisham, one of the earliest and most reliable of all the biographers of Mohammad has left in his book “Siratu’r-Rasul” an interesting account of the Hanifs in the course of which he tells us that: – “Waraqa ibn Naufal entered the Christian faith, and took up the study of the Scriptures of the Christians until at last, he became well versed in the learning of the people of the book.” The Traditionist Muslim further tells us that this Waraqa was the cousin of Khadija the wife of Mohammad, and that he translated the Injil into Arabic. From these interesting facts one or two conclusions may easily be drawn. The first is that Mohammad must often have had intercourse with Waraqa, and the second is that the great truth of the unity of God could easily have been learnt in intercourse with these Hanifs. One thing may be taken for certain, namely, that Mohammad was largely indebted to them for his theistic ideas; so much so that when he began to preach, he adopted the very term as the keynote of his discourses, and again and again asserted that he was simply sent to preach the religion of Abraham, whom he represented as a Hanif. From a wealth of references we quote two passages, one from Su’ratu’l-An’am (vi. 162), where the Prophet says:- “Say, As for me, my Lord hath guided me into a straight path, a true religion, the religion of Abraham the Hanif.” Again in Suratu Al-i-‘Imran (iii. 89), we read:- “Follow the religion of Abraham the Hanif.” Not only was the idea of one Supreme God known to the contemporaries of Mohammad, but it is an indisputable fact that most of the ceremonies connected with the Mohammedan pilgrimage also, which Mohammad pretended had been taught him by revelation, were already in existence long before his time, and were regularly performed by the idolatrous Arabs. The famous Muslim historian Abu’l-Fida candidly admits these facts. In his great history we read that, “They (the pre-Islamic Arabs) used to perform the pilgrimage to the Ka’ba, where they put on the ‘umra and ihra’m, and they also performed the tawaf (circumambulation of the Ka’ba), and the running at Mounts Safa and Marwa, and the casting of stones, and at the end of every three years spent a month in solitary contemplation … and they performed circumcision, and cut off the right hand of thieves.” This testimony of Abu’l-Fida leaves no room for doubt that all these practices, together with various ceremonial ablutions mentioned by him, were observed long before the time of Mohammad, and were simply borrowed by the latter and incorporated into his system as though revealed from heaven. Even his own immediate followers found it difficult to harmonize the retention of these idolatrous practices with a purely theistic system; and there is a Tradition recorded by Muslim which relates that, “‘Umar bin al-Khattab kissed the black stone and said, ‘My God, I well know that thou art simply a piece of stone, and if I had not seen the Apostle of God kiss thee, then I had not kissed thee.\'” But Mohammad did not restrict his plagiarism to the Arabs. His journeys into Syria and elsewhere brought him into contact with many Persians and others, from whom he adopted many ideas relating to heaven and hell, judgment and reward, which afterwards appeared, adapted and altered, in the pure Arabic of the Quraish as a part of the revelations communicated to him by the angel Gabriel. Ibn Hisham, the biographer of Mohammad, mentions one, Salman by name, who afterwards became famous as a Companion of the Prophet. In Arabia, Mohammad had many opportunities of learning the tales and legends of the Persians, for Persian influence had long been felt in that land. Indeed for some time previous to the time of Mohammad a succession of Persian governors had ruled over Hira, ‘Iraq and Yemen. The Muslim historian Abu’l-Fida mentions eight Persian princes who had thus ruled over Yemen. The influence which was exercised upon the Arabs by their more cultured conquerors could not have been small; on the contrary, there is ample evidence in Arabian history to show that the legends and poetry of the Persians were well known amongst the Arabs. A striking example of this is found in the work of Ibn Hisham. This writer tells us that in the early days of Islam not only were Persian stories current in Madina, but the Quraish were in the habit of comparing their tales with those of the Qur’an. He then tells us that one day Nazir ibn Harith stood up before the Quraish and recited to them certain stories of the Persian kings; and then continued, “By God, the stories of Mohammad are no better than my own; they are simply tales of the ancients which he hath written out as I have written mine.” The author of the Randatu’l-Ahbab is even more candid, for he tells us that, “It was the Prophet’s practice to converse in their own tongue with people of every nation who visited him; and hence the introduction of some Persian words into the Arabic language.” This damaging admission furnishes a key to the understanding of much of the Qur’an which would otherwise be difficult of apprehension, for it clearly indicates the source of the many Persian words and conceptions to be found therein. Any comparison of the Zoroastrian cosmogony with the stories of heaven and hell, death and judgment, which now adorn the pages of the Qur’an, will make it undeniably clear that Mohammad learned them from the many Persians with whom he had intercourse, and then gave them out to the ignorant Arabs in his own eloquent language as a revelation from heaven. The conceptions thus borrowed from Zoroastrianism may generally be traced by the presence of Persian words in the narratives which contain them, for it is certainly a legitimate inference to draw that, if the word used to describe a hitherto unknown religious conception be Persian in its origin, then the conception itself is also derived from that source. Now, it is a striking fact that in the book which Mohammad is never tired of describing as the “perspicuous Arabic Qur’an” we find quite a large number of foreign words embodying conceptions which are found in the very systems from whence those words come. The inference is clear that the conceptions themselves were borrowed also. We now proceed to give two or three examples by way of proof. Every Muslim is familiar with the story of Mohammad’s celebrated night journey known as the Mi’raj. Yet the Qur’an, strange to say, has only the briefest reference to this wondrous event, which we here quote from Suratu Bani Isra’il (xvii. i). “Praise be to Him who transported His servant by night from the sacred temple to the farther temple, the circuit of which we have blessed, that We might show him of Our signs.” There is another reference in the 62nd verse of the same Sura to this same event, where we read:- “We have not appointed the vision which We showed thee, except as a test for men.” This latter statement notwithstanding, Mohammedan commentators and Traditionists delight to paint in detail a literal bodily journey by night upon the back of a fabulous steed, not merely to the further temple (the temple of Jerusalem), but to heaven itself, where the Prophet ascended from story to story, until he reached the very presence of God and learned many of the secrets of heaven. This story Mohammad must have learned from the Persians, for in the “Arta’ Viraf Namak” which was written some four hundred years before his time, we find a similar story – agreeing in many of its details – in which the here a young magian priest of saintly life, ascended to heaven under the guidance of an angel, and after passing into the very presence of God and beholding the felicities of heaven returned to the earth to tell Zoroastrians what he had seen. The Qur’a’nic stories of the Houris of Paradise are likewise borrowed from the Persians. Every reader of the Qur’an is familiar with the pictures of the sensual paradise found here, and of the Houris with large black eyes who recline upon luxurious couches waiting the embraces of the faithful. Out of a large number of passages we quote one from Suratu’r-Rahman (55: 46-76). “But for him who dreadeth the tribunal of his Lord, there are two gardens, planted with shady trees. In each of them are two fountains flowing. In each of them are of every fruit two kinds. They shall repose on couches, the linings whereof are of thick silk interwoven with gold; and the fruit of the two gardens are near at hand. Therein are (maidens) refraining their eyes, whom neither man nor demon hath approached before. They are like rubies and pearls. Shall the reward of good works be any other than good? And besides these there are two other gardens of a dark green. In each of them are two fountains pouring forth plenty of water. In each of them are fruits and palm-trees and pomegranates. Therein are agreeable and beautiful maidens, Houris kept in pavilions, whom neither man nor demon hath approached before. They shall recline on green cushions and beautiful carpets.” These tales of the Houris, many writers have shown, are derived from ancient Persian legends about beautiful female spirits who inhabit Paradise and captivate the hearts of men. These ‘Pairakas,’ as they are called, must often have been described to Mohammad in song and story; and the very word ‘hur,’ by which he described them in the Qur’an, and which is itself of Persian origin, and derived from the Pahlavi ‘hur’ meaning ‘light,’ sufficiently indicates the source of the whole story. The same might be said of the fables of the Qur’an concerning the ‘Jinn ‘ or evil spirits, for the Persian origin of the term – it being derived from the Avestic ‘Jaina’ – makes it clear that this conception also was derived from the Persians, whose books contain similar stories. Many other resemblances might be pointed out between the Zoroastrian Mythology and the stories of the Qur’an; but enough has been written to show that one of the sources of the latter was undoubtedly the stories which Mohammad learned from time to time from the Persians with whom he came into contact. The very word for Paradise “firdaus,” used so frequently in the Qur’an, is itself of Persian origin, as are not a few other words which have been used by Mohammad to describe conceptions which he borrowed from the Persians. The Muslim historian Abu’l-Fida gives us some interesting particulars of a sect, mentioned more than once in the Qur’an, known as the Sabians. Amongst other things, he tells us, they observed prayer seven times a day. Now the times for five of these prayers correspond exactly with the five Muslim prayers; and as it is clear from Mohammad’s references to the Sabians that he had close intercourse with them, it is probable that it was from them the Prophet obtained the practice which now prevails throughout the Mohammedan world. The facts related above are so well known, that Mohammedan scholars are fain to admit the influence of contemporaneous thought in the formation of the Qur’an. Syed ‘Amir ‘Ali acknowledges that, “There is no doubt that in the Suras of the intermediate period, before the mind of the teacher had attained the full development of religious consciousness, and when it was necessary to formulate in language intelligible to the common folk of the desert, the realistic descriptions of heaven and hell, borrowed from the floating fancies of Zoroastrianism, Sabianism and the Talmudic Jew, attract the attention as a side picture, and then comes the real essence – the adoration of God in humility and love. The houris are creatures of Zoroastrian origin, so is paradise, (in Persian ‘firdaus’), whilst hell, in the severity of its punishment, is Talmudic.” But if the facts be as described above, how, we ask, can the Qur’an be accepted as the word of God, given in its entirety to Mohammad by the angel Gabriel? It is proved, on the contrary, that the Prophet adopted ideas and doctrines from the Hanifs, Sabians, Zoroastrians and others. The presumption is that the rest of the Qur’an is borrowed also. This we now proceed to show. CHAPTER II JEWISH BELIEFS AND PRACTICES INCORPORATED INTO THE QUR’AN Whilst a study of the Qur’an makes it abundantly clear what Mohammad borrowed from the idolatrous Arabs of his time, and also incorporated into his system not a little of Christian truth, yet an investigation into the sources of the Qur’an reveals the fact that Islam is, in the main, little more than Talmudic Judaism, plus the assertion of the apostleship of Mohammad. We purpose in this chapter to prove the truth of this assertion. It need scarcely be said that Mohammad had ample opportunity for intercourse with Jews, from whom he could learn the stories current amongst them relating to the early patriarchs and others. Any comparison of the stories as given in the Qur’an with the Talmudic perversions of scripture histories will make it clear that the Jews of Mecca and Madina communicated their legends to Mohammad, who then recast them and gave them out to the ignorant Arabs as ‘revelations’ from heaven. It should be remembered that the Talmud was completed a century previous to the era of Mohammad, and cannot fail to have extensively influenced the religious creed of all the Jews of the Arabian Peninsula. In one passage of the Qur’an Mohammad speaks of a certain Jew as a witness to his mission; in many places his disputes and arguments with them are mentioned, and it is clear that at one time, at least, his relations with them were those of friendship and intimacy. Hence it can easily be understood how easy it was for Mohammad to take the Jewish fables, to which he so frequently listened, and then to work them up in a form such as would commend itself to Arabian ears. There is no doubt that Mohammad was in the habit of questioning the Jews concerning their religion, and the great Traditionist Muslim has preserved for us a Tradition to that effect as follows:- “Ibn ‘Abbas records that, when the Prophet asked any question of the people of the Book, they suppressed the matter, and in place of it told him something else, and went away letting him think that they had told him what he asked.” More significant still is the fact that Mohammad excused himself for thus obtaining his materials for his stories, by pretending that he had received a revelation commanding him to do so. Thus in Suratu Yunas (x. 94) we read:- “(O Mohammad) ask those who are reading the book before thee.” The Muslim historian Tabari further tells us Khadija (the first wife of the Prophet) read the former scriptures and knew the stories of the prophets. ” Now Mohammad lived with Khadija for some fifteen years before he began to announce his mission, and when it is remembered that during that period he must also have had close and frequent intercourse with Waraqa, the cousin of his wife, who was in turn both Hanif and Christian, and was the translator of the Christian scriptures into Arabic, the reader is at no difficulty to understand whence the Prophet obtained his knowledge of the Jewish Rabbinical fables. We now propose to give examples of the way in which Mohammad adopted the stories of Jewish history which were current amongst his contemporaries; but before doing so, it will be necessary to clear the ground somewhat by reminding the reader of the state of Jewish thought in Arabia at this time. The Jews, especially in the neighbourhood of Madina, were both powerful and numerous; but the study of the Old Testament scriptures had largely given place to that of the Talmud. The latter was a chaotic arrangement of Rabbinical speculations, comments, and traditions connected with the Hebrew Bible. This encyclopaedia of laws and traditions records the thoughts of a thousand years of the national life of the Jewish people, and in it the oral traditions of the race have been carefully preserved. Yet it is “a literary wilderness,” without order or arrangement, often grossly unhistorical, and abounding in puerile fancies and absurd stories. This made up the mental pabulum of the Jews of Mohammad’s time, and it was the apocryphal stories of the Talmud which delighted the ears of Jewish audiences, and furnished the basis of instruction in Jewish schools. Thus it was the stories of the Talmud, rather than of the Bible, which Mohammad would learn in his intercourse with the Jews; and we will now proceed to show that the stories of the Patriarchs and others detailed in the Qur’an agree with the, often unhistorical, legends of the Hagadah rather than with the Bible. In Suratu’l-Ma’ida (v.30-35) there is a curious story connected with Cain and Abel. It is there (verse 34) related that, after Cain had killed his brother, “God sent a raven which scratched the earth to show him (Cain) how he should hide his brother’s body.” Every student of the Taurat knows that this story is not to be found in the revelation given to Moses; but we are not left in doubt as to where Mohammad learned the legend; for in a Rabbinical work known as the Targum of Jonathan, Pirke Rabbi Eliezer, Chapter XXI, we read, “Adam and his companion sat weeping and mourning for him (Abel), and did not know what to do with him, as burial was unknown to them. Then came a raven, whose companion was dead, took its body, scratched in the earth, and hid it before their eyes. Then said Adam, ‘I shall do as this raven has done,’ and at once be took Abel’s corpse, dug in the earth and hid it.” From a comparison of these two passages it is clear that Mohammad had heard from the Jews the fable of the burial of Abel as related in the Rabbinical books, and thinking it derived from the scriptures, repeated it, with slight alterations, as if revealed to him from heaven. The Qur’an abounds with stories of the Patriarch Abraham. These in many instances flagrantly contradict the Biblical narrative; but a comparison of them with the Rabbinical legends of the Jews, leaves no room for doubt that Mohammad learnt them from the latter during his close intercourse with them. Thus in several places of the Qur’an the story is told of Abraham’s being cast into a fiery furnace by order of a king (whom the commentators name Nimrod) because of the Patriarch’s refusal to worship idols. It is said in Suratu’l-Anbiya’ (xxi. 69, 71) that when Abraham was cast into the fire, God said:- “O fire, be thou cold, and a preservation unto Abraham, and we saved him.” Now it is a curious fact that this legend, which has no basis in scripture, is found in its entirety in a Jewish book called the Midrash Rabba. From the Taurat we learn that the Patriarch Abraham before his entrance into the land of Canaan resided in the city named Ur in the land of Chaldea; but God brought him out of that city and took him to the land of promise. Thus in Genesis 15: 7, we read, “I am the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees.” This city was evidently unknown to the ignorant Jewish author of the Midrash mentioned above; for in his comment on the verse quoted he took the word “Ur,” which also means fire, in its bare literal sense, and supposed that God had delivered Abraham out of a fire. So, to explain the verse “I am the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees,” a story was invented of Abraham’s being cast into fire by Nimrod, whence he was miraculously saved by God. The whole story is given at length in the Midrash Rabba referred to above, and was well known to the Arabian Jews of Mohammad’s time. It is there written, “Now this happened at the time when Nimrod cast Abraham into the oven of fire, because he would not worship the idols, that leave was withheld from the fire to hurt him.” The reader is now in a position to understand the source of the story as it appears in the Qur’an, the author of which was evidently as ignorant of the real meaning of the words the Jewish commentator referred to above. If any further proof were needed to show the utterly unhistorical nature of the whole narrative, it may be found in the fact that Nimrod was not a contemporary of Abraham at all, but preceded him by many years. Another Qur’anic story which has an undoubted Jewish origin is that found in Su’ratu Ta Ha (xx. 90) in connection with the calf which was worshipped by the Israelites during Moses’ absence on Mount Sinai. We are there told that the people brought their ornaments of gold and silver and cast them into the fire, after which in like manner Samiri also cast them in and he brought out to them a corporeal, lowing calf.” It is well known that the Taurat contains no mention of the golden calf having lowed; but Rabbinical fables are not wanting in which the story as reproduced by Mohammad is clearly traced. Thus in the Pirke Rabbi Eleazar we read, “The calf having cried aloud, came forth, and the children of Israel saw it.” Rabbi Yahuda further preserves a fable to the effect that a man named Sammael secreted himself inside the image and made a cry like a calf in order to lead the Israelites astray. Such is the story which was current amongst the Jews of Arabia in the time of Mohammad. Let it be compared with the narrative of the Qur’an and the reader will easily see that Mohammad, thinking the story which he heard upon the lips of his Jewish contemporaries to be a part of the scripture record, adopted and later gave it out to the ignorant Arabs as though revealed from heaven. Unfortunately Mohammad failed to rightly understand the allusion to the man Sammael, and, confounding his name with the name of the Samaritans, whom he probably knew to be enemies of the Jews, makes the Samaritan to have a part in the matter. Since, however, the Samaritans did not come into existence as a people until some centuries after the event recorded here, it must require a wide stretch of credulity indeed to enable one to believe that this Qur’anic tale also was handed down from heaven by the angel Gabriel. In the Suratu’n-Naml (27:44), we find a long story of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba in which it is stated that the former sent a letter to the Queen by a bird which he called for the purpose. The story goes on to say that the letter resulted in the determination of the Queen to visit Solomon. When she at length arrived at the palace of the King, “It was said to her, ‘Enter the palace,’ and when she saw it she imagined that it was a great lake of water, and she uncovered her legs. He said ‘verily it is a palace paved with glass.\'” Hearing this the Queen replied like any good Muslim, “I resign myself unto God the Lord of all creatures.” Every reader of the Holy Bible knows that all this is mere fable, and has no place in the word of God; hence the question naturally arises as to the source of the story. In the Targum of the Book of Esther, a Rabbinical work full of fables and mythical stories, may be found, often in the very same words, practically the whole story as told by Mohammad. In this Targum we read, “Solomon, know that she (the Queen) was come, arose and sat down in the palace of glass. When the Queen of Sheba saw it, she thought that the glass floor was water, and so, in crossing over lifted up her garments.” Much more might be quoted from the same book, including the whole incident of the bird-messenger; but enough has been written to show that the story as found in the Qur’an is nothing more than a Rabbinical tale which Mohammad had learned from the Jews. Let the reader study the real history as found in the Holy Bible (1 Kings 10) and he will see what a vast distance separates truth from fiction. Another fable which Muhammad learned from the Jews and incorporated into the Qur’an, is a fanciful story of God’s holding a mountain over the Israelites in order to frighten them. In Su’ratu’l-A’ara’f (vii. 170) we read: – “And when we shook the mountain over them as though it had been a shadow; and they imagined it was falling upon them.” This story has no foundation in fact; but it is to be found in a Jewish tract called the Abodah Zarah. The Taurat relates nothing of the kind, but simply states that, while God was giving Moses the Law on mount Sinai, all the people stood beneath, i.e., at the foot of, the Mount. The Jewish commentators however, soon turned this into a fanciful story of God’s holding the mountain over the people; and in the story as found in the Abodah Zarah God is represented as saying to the Israelites, “I covered you over with the mountain like a lid.” In another Rabbinical version of the story we read that God “inverted the holy mountain above them like a pot, and said unto them, ‘if ye receive the Law, well; but if not, there will your grave be.\'” This legend, which was current amongst the Jews of Arabia, must have reached the ears of Mohammad, who, imagining it to be a part of the Biblical story, soon incorporated it into his Qur’an and bade Muslims for all time to believe in it as a part of the word of God, preserved from all eternity near the throne of God in heaven, and finally sent down to Mohammad by the agency of the angel Gabriel. The story quoted above is only equalled for absurdity by that of the fallen angels which is found in Su’ratu’l-Hijr (xv. 16-18) where it is gravely stated that the devils endeavour to hear what is going on in heaven, and are then driven away by meteors which are cast at them by the angels. Thus we read:- “We have placed signs of zodiac in the heaven, and have adorned them for the spectators; and We guard them from every stoned Satan except such as steal a hearing; and him doth a visible flame consume;” and again, in Suratu’l-Mulk (lxvii. 5) we read:- “We have placed them (the stars) there to be darted at the Satans.” So much for Mohammad’s explanation of shooting stars! His ideas of the devils attempting to ‘steal a hearing’ in the courts of heaven, however, are not original, but are simply echoes of a Jewish fable preserved in the Hagigah, where it is said that the demons “listen from behind a curtain” in order to obtain a knowledge of future events. Further comment upon these mythical tales is needless. No intelligent Muslim, we are convinced, can accept them as of divine origin; and their very presence in the Qur’an bears eloquent testimony to the human origin of the book. Much more might be written to show how much Mohammad was indebted to the Jews for the ideas which he afterwards embodied in the Qur’an; but the limits of this little book compel us to be content with one or two more examples. As both the Jews and Sabians observed a month’s fast in the year, it is not easy to determine which of these sects furnished Mohammad with the similar injunction now found in the Qur’an; but in connection with this fast there is a rule enjoined in the Qur’an which is undoubtedly of Jewish origin. In Suratu’l-Baqarah (ii. 183), we read:- “Eat and drink until ye can discern a white thread from a black thread by the daybreak then fast strictly till night.” This ingenious method of determining when the night ended and the day began was not original, however, but was copied by Mohammad from the Jews who, long before, had adopted a similar practice; and in the Mishnah Berakhoth we read that the fast began, “when one can distinguish between a blue thread and a white one.” Yet Muslims are asked to believe that Mohammad had no part in the composition of the Qur’an:- that the whole was revealed from heaven where it had been kept from all eternity upon the “preserved table.” On the contrary, we will now proceed to prove that the very idea of a scripture preserved on a table is itself a plagiarism from the Jews. In Su’ratu’l-Buruj (lxxxv. 21) we read:- “Yet it is a glorious Qur’an in a preserved table.” This wonderful table is much spoken of in Mohammedan tradition. A sample of the fanciful and extravagant stories there found is given below from the Qisau’l-Anbiya’. It is there related that in the beginning, “Beneath the throne God created a pearl, and from the pearl He created the preserved table. Its height was seven hundred years journey and its breadth three hundred years journey.” Then after describing the creation of a pen the author proceeds, “accordingly, the pen wrote down God’s knowledge in God’s most high creation of everything that He wished unto the resurrection day; the extent that the leaf of a tree moveth or descendeth or ascendeth, and it wrote every such thing by the power of God most High.” This notion of a table upon which the words of God are preserved is an obvious parody of the inspired narrative of the Taurat where we read that God said to Moses, “Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first, and come up unto Me into the mount, and make thee an ark of wood. And I will write on the tables the words that were on the first tables which thou brakest, and though shalt put them in the ark.” (Deuteronomy 10. 1-2.) It is specially significant that the very Hebrew word “luach” used for these tables in the Taurat is that adopted by Mohammad in describing his imaginary table. He had doubtless, often heard from the Jews the story of the tables of stone which were preserved in the ark, and, not wishing for his Qur’an a less distinguished origin, adopted and elaborated the idea of a book written and preserved in heaven itself. The Prophet, however, over-reached himself; and in an unguarded moment made God to say, “We have, since the Law was given, written in the Psalms that my servants, the righteous, shall inherit the earth;” so that, for all time, the faith of Muslims is staggered by the spectacle of a Qur’an which claims to have been written in the beginning of creation, quoting from a book not then two thousand years old. Most intelligent people will regard this as a proof that the Qur’an was written after the Psalms. If further proof were needed to show that the Qur’an is largely based upon Talmudic Judaism, it may surely be found in the large number of words of Hebrew origin which are found therein. The following words amongst others, are of Hebrew origin, Tabut ; Taurat ; ‘Adn ; Jahannam ; Ahbar ; Sabt ; Sakinat ; Taghut ; Furqan ; Ma’un ; Mathani ; and Malakut . The curious will find in Dr. Imadu’d-Din’s famous “Hidayatu’l-Muslimin,” a list of no less than one hundred and fourteen non-Arabic words, together with their original significations, which are to be found in the Qur’an. CHAPTER III CHRISTIAN BELIEFS AND PRACTICES INCORPORATED INTO THE QUR’AN We have already pointed out that Mohammad was much less indebted to Christianity for his ideas than to either Judaism or the pre-Islamic idolatry of Arabia. Yet the Qur’an reveals not a few traces of the influence of Christian thought and practice. Thus Jesus Christ is invariably spoken of with the deepest reverence as a Prophet sent from God, to whom was entrusted the Gospel, or Injil, as Mohammad described the Evangel. The many references, to Christians in the Qur’an make it clear that they must have been numerous in Arabia at that time; and Mohammad seems to have entertained no little friendship for them, as may be seen by the following advice given to his followers:- “Thou shalt surely find those to be nearest in affection to them (i.e., true believers) who say, ‘We are Christians.\'” (Suratu’l-Ma’ida (v. 85).) Mohammad certainly had reason to reward the followers of Christ with grateful affection, for it was in the Christian Kingdom of Abyssinia that his persecuted followers found a safe asylum when the oppression of the Meccans had become intolerable. Mohammad had many opportunities of learning of Christianity, both during his journeys into Syria and also in Arabia itself. We have already pointed out that Waraqa, the cousin of his wife Khadija, was at one time a Christian and was well versed in the Christian scriptures; later on, not a few Christians became Mohammad’s followers, and from Mary, his Coptic wife, also he could easily learn the Scripture and especially the apocryphal stories then current amongst the Eastern Christians. Thus it would he easy for Mohammad to take these stories and give them out in his own eloquent Arabic as though revealed from heaven. Mohammad’s contemporaries had no doubt that he did so, and frequently charged him with obtaining the help of certain well-known persons. Thus, for example, in Suratu’n-Nahl (xvi. 103, 105) we read:- “They say, ‘thou art only a forger’ … they say, ‘verily a certain man teacheth him.’ The tongue of him at whom they hint is foreign; while this (Qur’an) is in the plain Arabic.” Baidawi’s comment on this significant passage is worth careful notice. He says is:- “It is said that he (the person referred to) was a Greek slave belonging to ‘Amir ibnu’l-Hadrami. It is also said that Jabara and Yasara, two sword-makers of Mecca, used to read the Taurat aud Injil, and that the Prophet was in the habit of going to them and listening to what they were reading.” Imam Husain comments thus, “It is related that there was a slave belonging to ‘Amir ibnu’l-Hadrami, named Jabara (and according to some a second slave named Yasara) who used to read the Law and the Gospel, and Mohammad used, when be passed, to stand and listen.” It is worthy of note here that in reply to the charge that he was helped in composing the Qur’an by these persons, Mohammad does not specifically deny the imputation. All he can reply is that the person or persons referred to are foreigners, and could not therefore compose so elegantly in Arabic. But we are not concerned to prove they did. What we do assert is that Mohammad learnt the main outlines of the Biblical and Apocryphal stories from Jews and Christians with whom he was frequently brought into contact, and then by his own poetic genius, fashioned them into the forms they now take in the Qur’an. We certainly have shown that he had ample opportunities for so doing. We had occasion to point out in the last chapter that it was Talmudic perversions of Holy Scripture, rather than the sacred records themselves which were current amongst the Jews of Arabia in the time of Mohammad. The reader will fail to rightly apprehend the nature of the influence which Christianity exercised upon Mohammad, unless the character of that Christianity be properly understood. Arabia has been called “The Mother of heresies.” Certain it is that from the earliest times that land had offered a refuge for the many heretical sects of Christians who had been expelled from the Roman Empire on account of their dangerous heresies. The Christianity of Arabia in the time of Mohammad was buried under a senseless mass of superstition and degradation. Saint worship and Mariolatry had taken the place of true religion, and a mass of fanciful apocrypha literature had usurped the place of the Bible. It has been well said that had Mohammad been brought into contact with a purer form of Christianity, there would probably have been one false religion the less in the world, and one Christian reformer the more. As it was, the blasphemous extravagances of the Mariamites, Collyridians and other heretical Christian sects repelled the Arabian reformer, and led him to denounce the teaching of these people as nothing less than polytheism. It was Mohammad’s misfortune that he identified this mass of superstition with true Christianity, and thus became the founder of a faith which led back to the legal bondage of Judaism. Any comparison of the Apocryphal stories which were current amongst these wanderers from the pure teaching of the Bible with the stories of the Qur’an will, at the same time, make it evident that Mohammad accepted many of their fables as a portion of the Gospel record, and thus, believing them to be true, incorporated them into the Qur’an. We give below one or two examples which will make this clear. In Suratu’l-Kahf (xviii. 8-12, 25) there is a curious story of seven youths who went to sleep in a cave and awoke again only after a period of three hundred and nine years. We there read, “Dost thou consider that the inmates of the cave, and of al-Rakim, were one of our wondrous signs. When the young men took refuge in a cave, they said, ‘O Lord! grant us mercy from before thee, and order for us our affair aright.’ Then We struck their ears with deafness in the cave for many a year; then We awaked them that We might know which of the two parties could best reckon the space of their abiding.” “And they remained in their cave three hundred years and nine years over.” This mythical story, which is absolutely devoid of foundation, was current in Arabia long before the time of Mohammad. It is found in the writings of a Syrian, named Jacob of Sarug, who died in 521 A.D., and which purports to tell the story of seven young men of Ephesus who fled from the persecution of the Roman Emperor Decius. They took refuge, it is said, in a cave where they fell asleep, and only awoke some one hundred and ninety-six years later to find Christianity everywhere triumphant. Mohammad must often have heard the legend, from the Christians of Arabia and Syria, and imagining it to be true, pretended that he had received it as a Divine revelation. Another story of the Qur’an which has a distinctly Christian origin is that relating to the childhood of the Virgin Mary. Nothing is more striking to the thoughtful reader than the silence of the genuine Gospels concerning the person of the mother of the Lord Jesus Christ; but in a community where the pure teachings of the Gospel were hidden under a load of superstitious beliefs, and where Mariolatry had taken the place of true worship, it is not surprising to find a number of legendary stories in which, with extravagant detail, the events of the Virgin’s life are related. These Apocryphal stories were current amongst the Christians of Arabia, and were almost certainly well known to Mohammad. The latter, however, was too ignorant of the contents of the genuine Gospels to detect their spuriousness, and consequently found no difficulty in introducing them into his ‘revelations’ as a part of the message sent down to ‘confirm the previous Scriptures’. From Suratu Al-i-‘Imran (iii. 39) we learn that, in her childhood, Mary was brought to the temple of Jerusalem which was henceforth her home until the birth of Christ. During her residence there, the Qur’an tells us, it was signified by lot who was to be her guardian. Thus we read:- “Thou was not present with them when they cast lots with reeds which of them should rear Mary.” This story, as every reader of the Gospels knows, is not to be found in the inspired record. It is, however, found in its entirety in the Apocryphal books of the heretical Christians who lived in Arabia in the time of Mohammad. Hence its source is clear. Thus in both the “Protevangelium of James the Less,” and in the Coptic “History of the Virgin” the incident of casting lots for the guardianship or, as it is there styled, the right to become the husband of Mary is fully related. In the former we are told that when Mary reached the age of twelve a council of the priests was held to decide upon her future after which “an angel of the Lord stood by him (Zacharias) saying ‘Zacharias, Zacharias, go forth and call together the widowers of the people, and let them bring each a rod, and to whomsoever the Lord God shall show a sign, his wife shall she be.\'” Another Qur’anic story connected with the Virgin Mary which Mohammad borrowed from the Apocryphal Gospels, or rather from the lips of his Christian acquaintances, is that of the palm-tree, found in Su’ratu Maryam (xix. 22-5). We there read: – “And she conceived him; and retired with him to a distant place; and the pains of childbirth came upon her near the trunk of a palm-tree. She said, would to God I had died before this, and had been a thing forgotten, forgotten quite. And he who was beneath her called to her; ‘grieve not thou, thy Lord bath provided a rivulet under thee; and do thou shake the body of the palm-tree, and it shall let fall ripe dates upon thee ready gathered, and eat and drink and calm thy mind.\'” The Gospels on the contrary, tell us that Christ was born in the town of Bethlehem in or near an inn. In this case, again, the source of the story repeated by Mohammad can be clearly traced; for the Apocryphal Christian books contain similar legends and relate many fanciful stories connected with the birth of Jesus. These were popularly repeated amongst the Christians of Arabia, and must often have reached the ears of Mohammad, who doubtless imagined them to be part of the genuine Gospel record. In the Apocryphal work entitled the “History of the Nativity of Mary and the Infancy of the Saviour” the whole story of the palm-tree in its main features may be clearly traced. The few variations in the details may be sufficiently accounted for by the fact that these stories were probably repeated from hearsay; but any careful comparison of the story as found in these spurious Gospels with that repeated by Mohammad in the Qur’an will make it clear that the latter is simply taken from the former, and then represented as a direct revelation from God. That the reader may see how close the resemblances are we give below a quotation from the Apocryphal work mentioned above. After recording the flight of Joseph and Mary with the child Jesus the narrative proceeds, “and Joseph hastened and brought her (Mary) to that palm-tree, and took her down off her beast. When Mary sat down she looked up to the top of the palm-tree, and seeing it full of fruit said to Joseph, ‘I desire if it be possible, to take of the fruit of this palm-tree.’ ….. Then the child Jesus, who with a joyful countenance lay in his mother, the Virgin Mary’s bosom, said to the palm-tree, ‘O, tree, lower thy branches and refresh my mother with thy fruit.’ Instantly the palm-tree at this word bowed its head to the sole of Mary’s feet; and they all plucked the fruit which it bore, and were refreshed and the palm-tree instantly stood erect, and streams of very clear, cool, and very sweet water began to come forth from amid its roots.” Every reader of the Qur’an knows that it contains several references to the Lord Jesus Christ, and mentions certain stories connected with His birth, some of which are not to be found in the genuine Gospels. These stories, like that of the palm-tree, can also be traced to Apocryphal sources, and show conclusively whence Mohammad drew the materials which he afterwards recast and embodied in the Qur’an. One of these legends has reference to certain miracles said to have been performed by Christ in His infancy. One allusion to them may be found in Suratu’l-Ma’ida (v. 109-110) where we read:- “When God shall say, O Jesus! son of Mary! remember My favour upon thee, and upon thy mother; when I strengthened thee with the Holy Spirit that thou shouldest speak unto men in the cradle and when grown up. And when I taught thee the Scripture and Wisdom and the Law and the Gospel, and when thou didst create of clay as it were the figure of a bird by my permission, and didst breathe thereon, and it became a bird by my permission.” Now the genuine Gospels have nothing of all this; on the contrary, it is distinctly stated that the first miracle of Jesus was wrought after the beginning of His public ministry at thirty years of age. In the Injil (John ii. 11) we read, “This beginning of His signs did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested His glory.” A reference to the spurious Gospel of the Infancy,” “The Gospel of Thomas the Israelite,” and other Apocryphal works, however, makes it clear that the legend must have been current in Arabia in the time of Mohammad. The latter must often have heard it repeated by his Christian contemporaries, and, imagining it to be part of the genuine Gospels, incorporated it into his Qur’an. On no other theory can the extraordinary likeness between the two narratives be accounted for. Let the reader, for example, remembering the Qur’an version quoted above, read the following from the “Gospel of Thomas the Israelite,” a spurious and fanciful work of late date which was never regarded as inspired by any Christian sect. It is there written that “The child Jesus when five years of age was playing by the road by a dirty stream of running water and having brought it all together into ditches immediately made it pure and clean, and all this by a single word. Then having moistened some earth he made of it twelve sparrows, …. Jesus clapping his hands at the sparrows cried aloud to them ‘Go off.’ So they clucking flew away. The ‘Gospel of the Infancy,’ another fanciful romance, also tells us that when Jesus was in the cradle He spoke to His mother, and acquainted her with His Divine Mission. Much more could be written to show that Mohammad was indebted not a little to the heretical Christians of his time for the legendary tales and religious conceptions which are now found in the Qur’an; but the limits of this little book compel us to be content with one more example. The reader who desires to study the subject further should consult the learned works of Tisdall, Sell and Geiger whence most of the material for these chapters has been drawn. We cannot conclude this chapter, however, without a reference to the “balance” so frequently referred to in the Qur’an. Islam teaches that at the Judgment Day a balance will be produced in which the actions of men will be weighed. Those whose good deeds preponderate will enter paradise, whilst those whose evil deeds out-weigh the good will be cast into hell. Thus in Su’ratu’l-‘Araf (vii. 7, 8), we read:- “The weighing on that day shall be just; and they whose balances shall be heavy are those who shall be happy; but they whose balances shall be light are those who have lost their souls, for that to Our signs they were unjust.” This conception of the Qur’an is taken from an Apocryphal work entitled the “Testament of Abraham,” which was written in the second or third century of the Christian era. A mythical story is there related of the Patriarch Abraham’s ascension to heaven, where he beheld, amongst other marvels, the great throne of judgment. And, the story proceeds, “On it sat a marvellous man …. and before him stood a table like unto crystal, all of gold and fine linen. And on the table lay a book; its thickness was six cubits and its breadth ten cubits. And on the right and left of it there stood two angels holding paper and pen and ink. And in front of the table was seated a bright beaming angel holding a balance in his hand … and the marvellous man who was seated on the throne was himself judging and proving the souls, but the two angels who were on the right and on the left were registering. The one on the right was registering the righteous acts, but the one on the left the sins. And the one in front of the table, the one who held the balance, was weighing the souls.” We might go on to show that many other of the doctrines of the Qur’an such as the denial of the death of Christ, the resolving the Christian Trinity into a tri-theism consisting of the Father, the Son and the Virgin Mary were derived by Mohammad from the Gnostic and other heretical sects of Christians who flourished in Arabia in his time. Enough, however, has been written to show that much of the Qur’an can be traced to Apocryphal Christian sources; whilst the Christian reader will also perceive how false is the claim that the former “confirms” the preceding scriptures – the Taurat and Injil. CHAPTER IV PORTIONS OF THE QUR’AN CALLED FORTH BY THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE TIME We are convinced that a careful and unprejudiced study of the Qur’an will prove beyond doubt that large portions of it were deliberately framed by Mohammad to suit his own ends. This is a grave charge, and we now proceed to substantiate it. It should ever be remembered that “a comparison of the historical facts in the life of Mohammad with the various portions of the Qur’an connected with them is necessary, if that life is to be intelligently understood. Another and equally important result of such comparison is that it shows the gradual way in which the Qur’an came into existence, and how admirably the revelations fitted in to the local circumstances, and gave what was claimed to be divine authority and support to the varied actions of the Prophet. In this way alone could his change of policy be justified and he himself be protected from the charge of time-serving and inconsistency.” Such a study alone will enable the reader to understand such questions as a change of the Qibla from Jerusalem to Mecca, the substitution of an order to “Kill the idolaters wherever ye find them” for the pacific policy of “No compulsion in religion,” as well as the many contradictory injunctions relating to the domestic affairs of the Prophet. That Mohammad did on a certain occasion succumb to the temptation to forge a revelation upon the Quraish is amply testified by numerous Mohammedan writers, including such well-known authorities as Ibn Hisham, Tabari, Yahya’ and Jalalu’d-Din. The circumstances of the Prophet’s fall are as follows. One day, we are told, he entered the holy sanctuary of Mecca, and began to recite the Suratu’n-Najm (liii). The long-continued opposition of the Quraish had disheartened the prophet, and he longed for some means of gaining the good-will of his opposers. The temptation to compromise was great, and the prospect of reconciliation with those who maligned him too alluring to be withstood. The prophet fell, for when he came to the words, “Do ye see al-Lat and al-‘Uzza and Manat the third (idol) besides” (vv. 19-20) he added, to the delight of his hearers, the words, “These are the exalted females, and verily their intercession is to be hoped for.” The Quraish were delighted and joined the Prophet in worship, saying “Now we know that it is the Lord alone that giveth life and taketh it away, that createth and supporteth. These our goddesses make intercession for us with Him, and as thou hast conceded unto them a position we are content to follow thee.” But Mohammad soon repented of his rash compromise, and withdrew the words of commendation which he had used regarding the Arab idols, substituting in their stead the words now found in the Qur’an:- “What! shall ye have male progeny and God female? This were indeed an unfair partition. These are mere names and your fathers named them such.” (vv. 21-3). Then, to cover his fault, he produced yet another revelation in which God is made to comfort him by the reflection that he was in good company, for former prophets had been tempted in precisely the same manner by the devil, who was the author of the whole mistake. Thus in Suratu’l-Hajj (xxii. 51) we read:- “We have not sent an apostle or prophet before thee but when he read, Satan injected some (error) in his reading; but God shall bring to nought that which Satan hath suggested.” The incident related above is such a grave one that we quote at some length to show that its truthfulness is vouched for by the highest authority; for if thus early in his career the prophet of Arabia so easily fell into the temptation to compose a passage in order to gain the good will of his enemies, it is manifest that later on when worldly ambition loomed so large in his horizon, the temptation to do so would be doubly great. We quote, therefore, below, the account of the incident given by Mu’alim:- On the different rendering of , see Sell’s “Historical Development of the Qur’an” (ed. 1905), pp 36-7. “It is related by Ibn ‘Abbas and Mohammad ibn Ka’b al-Qarzi and other commentators besides that when Mohammad saw that his people (the Quraish) retired from him and opposed him, and rejected that (Qur’an) which he had brought them from God, he wished in his heart that some such word would come to him from God by which friendship might be established between him and his people, and an inducement held out to them to believe. And it came to pass that one day he was in the temple of the Quraish when God sent down Suratu’n-Najm. And the Prophet recited it, and when he arrived at the words ‘Do ye see al-Lat and al-‘Uzza and Manat the third (idol) besides,’ Satan placed upon his lips what he had longed for in his heart: ‘These are the exalted females, and verily their intercession is to be hoped for.’ When the Quraish heard this they rejoiced.” Another form of the story is given in the Mawahibu’l-Luduniyyah, as follows:- “The Prophet (on whom be blessing and peace) was reading Suratu’n-Najm in Mecca, and when he arrived at the words ‘Do ye see al-Lat and al-‘Uzza’ and Manat the third (idol) besides,’ Satan cast upon his lips the words ‘these are the exalted females and verily their intercession is to be hoped for,’ and the idolators said, ‘he hath spoken well of our goddesses’. And he worshipped and they worshipped; and then was sent down this verse, ‘We have not sent an apostle or prophet before thee into whose reading Satan did not cast (some error).\'” (Suratu’l-Hajj (xxii. 51). It is to the credit of the Apostle that he so soon repented of the fall related above, and ever afterwards consistently opposed idolatry in every form; but the experience gained did him little good, and we soon find him again changing his utterances to suit his own ends. Thus when the Prophet fled to Madina, a persecuted and helpless man, he soon recognized the necessity of conciliating, and if possible winning to his side, the numerous and powerful communities of Jews who lived there. For this purpose he made Jerusalem his Qibla, and for some considerable time continued to pray in the direction of the Jewish city; but when at last all efforts to win the Jews to his side failed, and his own position had become strengthened by the accession of numerous Arabs, he felt the necessity of once more trying to woo the Quraish to his side, and for that purpose brought forward a “revelation”(Suratu’l-Baqarah (ii. 138-9) again making the Ka’ba the Qibla. Thus in Suratu’l-Baqarah we read: “We appointed the Qibla towards which thou didst formerly (pray), only that We might know him who followeth the Apostle from him who turneth back on his heels. This (change) seems a great matter, unless unto those whom God hath directed. But God will not render your faith of none effect, for God is gracious and merciful unto man. We have seen thee turn thy face towards heaven, but We will cause thee to turn thyself towards a Qibla that will please thee. Turn therefore thy face towards the holy temple (of Mecca) and wherever ye be, turn your faces toward that place.” Good Mohammedan exegetes admit these facts; thus Jalalu’d-din says:- “After his flight he (Mohammad) ordered (his followers) to turn to the Temple at Jerusalem; this, however, which was done to conciliate the Jews, held good for six or seven months only, and then he changed it again.” ‘Abdu’l-Qadir admits that the Prophet wished to make Mecca his Qibla once more, and says “He wished that he might r
        • Yes Lailabanu /Raj, I do not deny any word that you write save for the profanity of any religion to hurt intentionally the feelings of others or respond to misfacts forwarded by you and others of the same feathers.

          You very well know by now that I crusade mine Be good, Do Good principle and wish my every fellow Human species to follow that irrespective of his/hers religious beliefs.

          You may interpret the Quran by your way of quoting fake Hadiths or distorting the verses to suit your particular way of thinking. But you will not be able to revert any Muslim back to barbaric ways and worship of handmade objects your pagan style.

          I think 1500 years history is now irrelevant on which you so much dwell on and repeatedly show discontent to the Muslim world. Why?? Why do you hate Muslims in general?

          Here, in Africa, the Muslims are in the majority and the very few Hindus those who are here with their families, live with us very peacefully and cordially as we have never had the “Indian” enmity creeping here! Why are you spreading your inborn jigger of hate toward Muslims all over the internet?

          Remember, the first migrants from Asia minor to East Africa were the Muslim Indians and they welcomed the people of other faiths too to live in harmony and peace. And you being a Hindu why do you hate the Muslim folks so far not that it would matter in any way??

          Islam is a religion and has many converts and to discredit it you go about haphazardly abusing others personally too or allow others to go beyond that insulting and hurting others using the crudest terms and that you call freedom of speech.

          Despite that, how many Muslim visitors to your site abuse you?? I have been clicking your site, at times giving my views, but I notice that hardly does any Muslim visit your site not that they fear answering you but it has become dirty with determined very crude profanity towards the Muslim world. Maybe I have got you wrong, so let me ask you, do you intend to keep this site for those who use crudity or that anyone can browse over here and have candid talks and views.

          Please answer!!

          Be Good, Do Good,

          Plum

          • MUSLIM ARABS HATE BLACKS

            Anti-Gaddafi jihadists are slaughtering black migrant workers, even if they are Muslims, simply because they are black, because Arab Muslims hate blacks.
            The al-Qaeda rebels in Libya are killing black Africans because of the anti-black, racist and innate hatred for black Africans by Arab Muslims. In Arabic, the word for ‘ black’ and ‘slave’ is the same word.

            In the Arabic language even before Muhammad, the word Slave/ Abd was – and still is – associated with BLACK AFRICANS.

            “Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message):’I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instill terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them'” (Qur’an 8:12).

            “Therefore, when ye meet the Unbelievers (in fight), smite at their necks; At length, when ye have thoroughly subdued them, bind a bond firmly (on them)… Thus (are ye commanded): but if it had been Allah’s Will, He could certainly have exacted retribution from them (Himself); but (He lets you fight) in order to test you, some with others. But those who are slain in the Way of Allah,- He will never let their deeds be lost” (Qur’an 47:4).

            “…he [Muhammad] said [to Abu Sufyan],‘Isn’t it time that you should recognize that there is no God but Allah?’

            He answered,‘You are dearer to me than father or mother. How great is your clemency, honour, and kindness! By God, I thought that had there been another God with God he would have continued to help me.’

            He said,‘Woe to you, Abu Sufyan, isn’t it time that you should recognize that I am God’s apostle?’

            He answered,‘As to that I still have some doubt.’

            I said to him,‘Submit and testify that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is the apostle of God before you lose your head,’ so he did so” (Ishaq, 547).

            Does Allah “encourage hatred”?

            Why, yes:

            “the Messenger of Allah … would say:’Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war…. When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action…. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them…. If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah’s help and fight them …'” (Muslim Book 19, Number 4294).

            “fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war)… ” (Qur’an 9:5).

            “Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth,(even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued” (Qur’an 9:29).

            “Allah’s Apostle said:’I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle …'” (Bukhari Volume 1, Book 2, Number 24).

            “It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land. Ye desire the lure of this world and Allah desireth (for you) the Hereafter, and Allah is Mighty, Wise” (Qur’an 8:67).

            “Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, “We are Christians”: because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant” (Qur’an 5:82).

            “And well ye knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath: We said to them: “Be ye apes, despised and rejected” (Qur’an 2:65).

            “Allah’s Apostle said,’The Hour will not be established until you fight with the Jews, and the stone behind which a Jew will be hiding will say, “O Muslim! There is a Jew hiding behind me, so kill him”‘” (Bukhari Volume 4, Book 52, Number 177).

            “… We were (sitting) in the mosque when the Messenger of Allah … came to us and said:(Let us) go to the Jews. We went out with him until we came to them. The Messenger of Allah … stood up and called out to them (saying): O ye assembly of Jews, accept Islam (and) you will be safe.

            […]

            “he killed their men, and distributed their women, children and properties among the Muslims, except that some of them had joined the Messenger of Allah … who granted them security. They embraced Islam. The Messenger of Allah … turned out all the Jews of Medlina. Banu Qainuqa'(the tribe of ‘Abdullah b. Salim) and the Jews of Banu Haritha and every other Jew who was in Medina.

            […]

            “It has been narrated by ‘Umar b. al-Khattib that he heard the Messenger of Allah … say: I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslim” (Muslim Book 19, Number 4363-4366).”

            “Abu Burda reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Apostle … said: No Muslim would die but Allah would admit in his stead a Jew or a Christian in Hell-Fire.’Umar b. Abd al-‘Aziz took an oath: By One besides Whom there is no god but He, thrice that his father had narrated that to him from Allah’s Messenger …” (Muslim Book 37, Number 6666).

            “Those who disbelieve, neither their possessions nor their (numerous) progeny will avail them aught against Allah: They are themselves but fuel for the Fire” (Qur’an 3:10).

            “Yahya related to me from Malik that he heard that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz gave a decision that when a [J]ew or [C]hristian was killed, his blood-money was half the blood-money of a free muslim.

            “Malik said,’What is done in our community, is that a muslim is not killed for a kafir unless the muslim kills him by deceit. Then he is killed for it.’

            […]

            “Malik said,’The blood-monies of the Jew, Christian, and Magian in their injuries, is according to the injury of the muslims in their blood-moneys. The head wound is a twentieth of his full blood-money. The wound that opens the head is a third of his blood-money. The belly-wound is a third of his blood-money. All their injuries are according to this calculation'” (Muwatta Book 43, Number 43.15.8b).

            “O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: They are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily Allah guideth not a people unjust” (Qur’an 5:51).

            “Those who believe fight in the way of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the way of the Shaitan. Fight therefore against the friends of the Shaitan; surely the strategy of the Shaitan is weak” (Qur’an 4:76).

            “Those who reject (Truth), among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists, will be in Hell-Fire, to dwell therein (for aye). They are the worst of creatures” (Qur’an 98:6).

            “Muhammad – the messenger of GOD – and those with him are harsh and stern against the disbelievers, but kind and compassionate amongst themselves” (Qur’an 48:29).

            Abd/ Black Slave:-

            In Muhammadan Islam, all human beings are the SLAVES/ ABEED of Allah.

            The relationship between Allah and Humanity is like that of a Master and his Slaves. It is based on FEAR of Allah and NOT on LOVE.

            In the Arabic language even before Muhammad, the word Slave/ Abd was – and still is – associated with BLACK AFRICANS.

            The Arabs looked upon the Black people as inferior beings. Muhammadan Islam
            and the exegetes of the faith propagated the same image.

            Sura Al-i-Imran, 3:106-107 “On the day when some faces will be whitened and some faces will be blackened, say to those whose faces will be blackened, ‘Did ye reject faith after accepting it? Taste then the penalty for rejecting faith.’ But those whose faces will be whitened, they will be in Allah’s mercy: therein to dwell.”

            #432 The “face” (wajh) expresses our Personality, our inmost being. White is the colour of Light;to become white is to be illumined with Light, which stands for felicity, the rays of the glorious light of Allah.Black is the colour of darkness, sin, rebellion, misery; removal from the grace and light ofAllah. These are the Signs of heaven and hell. The standard of decision in all questions is the justice of Allah#

            The question to be asked is why is white equated with goodness and black equated with evil?

            As a researcher, I am very puzzled at the lack of balanced historical reports by Muslims concerning theAfrican people.

            And consider this: Africa produced great thinkers like Augustine of Hippo (Algeria), Clement and Athanasius of Egypt, and Tertullian of Carthage (Tunis), while Ethiopia had the first African church totally independent of Europe (Acts 8).

            In fact, I find it most interesting that an African church was planted first before there was ever a church inBritain, Canada, the USA or Spain, or any other European state. So why do we not hear of this Africanchurch, and why do we not continue to see any remnants of it today?

            Perhaps we need to go to the Quran again to find the clue. Consider this verse –

            Sura Tauba, 9:5: “Fight and slay [those who associate another with Allah (Shirk)], and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem of war.”

            It fits the pattern of Muhammadan Islam which fights against all those who choose to follow their own beliefs, that is beliefs not compatible with those of the followers of Muhammad; an idea we find well expressed in the following verse –

            Sura Imran, 3:28 “Let not the believers take disbelievers [Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, etc] for their friends in preference to believers. Whoso doeth that hath no connection with Allah unless (it be) that ye but guard yourselves against them, taking (as it were) security. Allah biddeth you beware (only) of Himself.

            In North Africa we know that the whole Saharan region of Morocco, Libya, Algeria and Egypt to theSudan and Ethiopia used to be Christian, before Islam came and destroyed the local churches. Why do we not hear about it in Muslim literature?

            We can examine the history of the Sudan as a case in point. Before the Muslim invasion of 1275 A.D. by the Islamic Mamluks of Egypt, the Sudan had three mini-Christian states called:

            NOBATIA in the north, the capital of Qustul

            MAKURIA, the capital of old Dongola, and

            ALODIA or ALWA, the capital of Soba.

            These three African Christian states, from 300 A.D. to 1500 A.D. had their own written language, great centers of learning, international commerce with Egypt, Ethiopia and other Middle East states, and sent out missionaries to other African states.
            (Read K. Milhalowski,Faras, vol.2, Poland, 1965 for extensive archaeological and historical documentation on these states).

            Even the Arab, ibn Selim al-Assuani, was impressed when he saw Soba, describing it as having, …fine buildings, roomy houses, churches, and the land is more fruitful than Makuria…[and it has] much meat, and good horses.

            All this was wantonly destroyed by Muslim invaders in 1275 A.D., not by European Imperialism.

            The historical records show that the same type of massive destruction,slsughter, subjugation, forced conversion and enslavememt happened all over Africa, yet we never hear anyone holding the Muhammadan Muslims – both Arab and African Muslims – in any way responsible.

            No Arab or Muslim country has ever admitted fault or offered any kind of apology while the Europeansand Americans have.

            Why have Christian counntries who traded in slavery offered apologies and not a SINGLE Muslim one?

            Arab Muslim RACISM is just as evil and obnoxious as that of the Europeans, so why is it allowed to continue unchallenged?

            Muhammadan Muslim racism continues unabated and unchallenged in Africa.
            In the 1990’s, the Sudan in north-east Africa has been suffering a Muslim jihad-war, whereby thousands of Christians and unbelievers have died, many by crucifixion, or have suffered by having their hands and feet on alternate sides cut off. Is it only coincidental that we find in the Quran, the sanction for this very practice?

            Sura (the Table Spread) 5: 33 “The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and his Messenger and strive after corruption in the land will be that they will be killed or crucified, or have their hands and feet on alternate sides cut off…”

            While this is going on, Muslim states have never once told off the Islamic government of Khartoum.

            The silence is DEAFENING. Why?

            Yet there has always been an enormous amount of noise about the apartheid of the old South Africa.Why the double standard?

            That then brings me to the question of slavery. Muslims – the best people on earth at the BLAME GAME – say it is only a Christian phenomenon.

            Let us now examine some facts. Because most of the Black people, in Africa were animists in general, the Muhammadan Muslims labelled them KUFFAR/ UNBELIEVERS from which is the derived the white South African derogatry term for the individual Black as ‘KAFIR’.

            Even in this 21st century, in the ordinary language of the Arabs, Black people are still called ‘ABEED/ SLAVES’.

            This is why according to the Quran, SLAVERY was not PROHIBITED but in fact ENCOURAGEDespecially the enslavement of UNBELIEVERS.

            It was the British Empire after all, who in the 1850’s who initiated the moves to abolish and stopAfrican Slavery in the first place under pressure from British Christians like David Livingstone andWilliam Wilberforce, and hunted the Arab Muslim slave ships in the Indian ocean and around theAfrican coasts who were continuimg their hellish business till recently.

            Have you not read about the islands of Zanzibar and Pembe in East Africa, during the nineteenth century?

            Have you not asked the question as to why Muslim countries have never been involved in the movements for the abolition of slavery?

            Let’s set the record straight. While Europeans were involved with the slave trade for a few hundred years, the existence of the traffic of African slaves had been well established among the Arabs one-thousand years earlier.

            The Muslim position which places the entire blame for the invention and practice of black slavery at the door of Christian Europe, is OBSCENELY HYPOCRITICAL and simply not historically tenable.

            Both the Grecian and Roman societies were slave states, yet most of their slaves were Caucasian. In fact, the word slave meant a person who was of Slavic origin.

            Robert Hughes, in his essay on The Fraying of America in the February 3, 1992 issue of Timemagazine corrects this false impression when he says:

            “The African slave trade as such, the black traffic, was an Arab invention, developed by traders with the enthusiastic collaboration of black African ones, institutionalized with the most unrelenting brutality, centuries before the white man appeared on the African continent, and continuing long after the slave market in North America was finally crushed.

            …. Nothing in the writings of the Prophet [Muhammad] forbids slavery, which is why it became such anArab-dominated business. And the slave traffic could not have existed without the wholehearted cooperation of African tribal states, built on the supply of captives generated by their relentless wars.

            The image promulgated by pop-history fictions like Roots – of white slavers bursting with cutlass and musket into the settled lives of peaceful African villages – is very far from the historical truth. A marketing system had been in place for centuries, and its supply was controlled by Africans. Nor did it simply vanish withAbolition.

            Slave markets, supplying the Arab Emirates, were still operating in Djibouti in the 1950’s; and since 1960, the slave trade has flourished in Mauritania and the Sudan. There are still reports of chattel slavery in northern Nigeria, Rwanda and Niger.”

            The argument by some Muslims that slavery was Allah’s way of converting Africans to Islam, is much the same argument suggested by certain misguided Christians in the 19th century who said that, bringingAfricans to America gave them the opportunity to hear the Gospel; an argument which holds no credibility in the Bible, and dishonours the character of God.

            Unfortunately Islam still hasn’t learned, as today the slavery of foreign nationals still exists in the heartland of Islam: Saudi Arabia.
            (UN Report on Slavery, 1994)

            Continuing the BLAME GAME, Muhammadan Muslims claim that the Christian West wishes to control Africa. Yet why is it that Africans must not like the Coca Cola culture of the West, but are obliged to start wearing seventh century Arab dress once Islam is taken on?

            What’s wrong with the native beautiful African cultural dress?

            Is it not CULTURAL IMPERIALISM ?

            Is it also not RELIGIOUS IMPERIALISM that Black African Muslims are obliged to pray facing a Saudi Arabian city: Mecca?

            Why not face any number of African holy towns instead?

            Why should Africans be forced to believe in an Arabian prophet, Muhammad and in a previouslyArabian Pagan god, Allah?

            Who wants to dominate whom?

            Is not Allah supposed to be everywhere, and that prayers should be directed to Him who is the whole Universe?

            Furthermore, why are people who convert to Muhammadan Islam required to read Allah’s word and speak to Him only in Arabic? Does Allah only speak Arabic? Is He not capable of understanding Swahili, Tutsi, Amazigh, and other African languages?

            Based upon the historical records of Slavery in Africa, it was not the WHITE MAN who went into Africato gather the Black people and take them unto their ships and into slavery.

            In reality, the White Slavers awaited their cargo on the Western and or Eastern coasts of Africa while it was ARAB and BLACK MUSLIMS who raided African communities, massacred, pillaged, raped and rounded the reamaining unfortunate humanity and walked them to the shores of Africa for transport to the Americas and elsewhere.

            It is estimated that for every slave that arrived ALIVE to be sold, TEN others perished in the most inhuman and horrible manner possible. The figures are mindboggling and ranging from 140 million to 180 million human beings.

            Even as you are reading this TODAY, in Darfour, Sudan (meaning land of the Blacks), the Arabized Sudanese are massacring, raping and pillaging other Muslims of the Sudan just because they are of the darker African skin.

            This is a purely ETHNIC/ RACIAL war and is just a continuation of 1450 years of the most obscene oppression of Blacks at the hands of the Arabs and Islam.

            References:

            1 Segal, Ronald: Islam’s Black Slaves; Atlantic Books, London 2002.

            2 Azumah, John Alembillah: The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa; Oneworld, Oxford,2001.

    • Ms. Laila you have a name of Muslims, then why are you saying like this? Any ways, I challenge all of you to contact me on “m_tauqeer@ymail.com”. I will remove all your misconceptions. INSHA ALLAH

      • Black People in Islam are Devils says Muhammad

        Sahih Bukhari 9:89:256

        Volume 9, Book 89, Number 256:

        Narrated Anas bin Malik:

        Allah’s Apostle said, “You should listen to and obey, your ruler even if he was an Ethiopian (black) slave whose head looks like a raisin.”

        _________________________
        Sahih Muslim 5:2334

        “The most hateful among the creation of Allah us one black man among them (Khwarij). One of his hand is like the teat of a goat or the nipple of the breast.”

        _____________________
        Ishaq 243

        I heard the Apostle say: ‘Whoever wants to see Satan should look at Nabtal!’ He was a black man with long flowing hair, inflamed eyes, and dark ruddy cheeks…. Allah sent down concerning him: ‘To those who annoy the Prophet there is a painful doom.” [9:61] “Gabriel came to Muhammad and said, ‘If a black man comes to you his heart is more gross than a donkey’s.’

        ______________________
        Ishaq 450

        “It is your folly to fight the Apostle, for Allah’s army is bound to disgrace you. We brought them to the pit. Hell was their meeting place. We collected them there, black slaves, men of no descent.”

        _______________________

        Ishaq 374

        The black troops and slaves of the Meccans cried out and the Muslims replied, ‘Allah destroy your sight, you impious rascals.’

        ________________________

        Mishkat, v. iii, p. 117

        “Abu Darda reported that the Holy Prophet said: Allah created Adam when he created him (sic). Then He stroke (sic) his right shoulder and took out a white race as if they were seeds, and He stroke (sic) his left shoulder and took out a black race as if they were coals. Then He said to those who were in his right side: Towards paradise and I don’t care. He said to those who were on his left shoulder: Towards Hell and I don’t care. – Ahmad”

        _________________________

        This one is a doozyabomb

        Ibn Musa al-Yahsubi, Qadi ‘Iyad, p.375

        Ahmad ibn Abi Sulayman, the companion of Sahnun said, “Anyone who says that the Prophet was black should be killed.

        __________________________

        Tabari II:21

        “Ham [Africans] begat all those who are black and curly-haired, while Japheth [Turks] begat all those who are full-faced with small eyes, and Shem [Arabs] begat everyone who is handsome of face with beautiful hair.

        And I will close with this dandyabomb

        Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, Shia Muslim Scholar (1201-74), Tasawwurat (Rawdat al-taslim):

        “If (all types of men) are taken, from the first, and one placed after another, like the Negro from Zanzibar, in the Southern-most countries, the Negro does not differ from an animal in anything except the fact that his hands have been lifted from the earth -in no other peculiarity or property – except for what God wished. Many have seen that the ape is more capable of being trained than the Negro, and more intelligent.”

        On the other matters I spoke of, here you go…peace

        Muhammad’s first wife was a wealthy Meccan widow named Khadija, who had hired Muhammad to manage her business. After some time, she sent her maid, Nafisa, to propose marriage to him on her behalf, He was twenty-five years old, she was forty. Muhammad’s marriage to Khadija assured him of prestige among his tribe, the tribe of Quraysh.

        Subsequently, Khadija’s cousin, Bishop Waraka Ibn Nofal, who was the Ebionite Christian Bishop of Mecca, officiated at the marriage ceremony. Muhammad lived with Khadija in Mecca and she provided for him a constant source of support and a comfortable lifestyle.

        After Muhammad’s marriage to Khadija, Bishop Waraka Ibn Nofal befriended him and set his mind to train and disciple Muhammad to succed him as the Ebionite Bishop of Mecca. Muhammad’s prosperous union with khadija gave him time for solitude at the cave fo Mount Hira in a suburb of Mecca. It was there that Bishop Waraka began to teach and train him.

        Bishop Waraka taught Muhammad many of the Old and New Testament stories of the Bible. These stories are mentioned in the Quran with great distortion. He also taught Muhammad about Jesus according to the Ebionites’ belief, who denied the deity of Christ.

        Shortly thereafter, Muhammad had the cave encounter…

        -I’ve think I have pretty much proven anything I need to prove here. The big question is are you going to listen. I have done my homework. I know what I am talking about. Time for you to do yours. Research for yourself and you will learn what I have shown you is 100% accurate. Hopefully you have the fortitude to listen to that which I have shown you…

        • Laila Banu bin Raj, You have proved nothing because all that you have quoted is from the FAKE Hadiths!!

          Kindly give references from the Quran, okay??

          Regards

          Plum

          • OFFENSIVE JIHAD

            (AFTER CONQUERING MECCA) – OFFENSIVE WAR COMMANDED TO KILL THE PAGANS AND HUMBLE THE CHRISTIANS AND JEWS:

            [The Muslims continued to gain strength until the Meccans surrendered (in 630 AD). Most of the pagans of the city then became Muslims, so Mohammad and his followers were able to take over the city and cleanse the Ka’aba of some 360 idols resident there. At this point a new order was given to fit the new situation. By this time it was evident that the Jews would not accept Muhammad’s claim to be a prophet, so the list of enemies now included all unbelievers – Jews and Christians as well as the pagans. Now it is no longer just defensive fighting, but aggressive Jihad against all unbelievers is commanded. Since this is the final teaching of the Quran regarding Jihad, it is what is still in force today.]
            Sura 9:1-6 (Dissolve all treaties with those pagans who haven’t kept them, giving them four months notice. But keep your treaties with other idol worshipers till the end of the time agreed upon. In the future, make no more treaties with pagans, but kill those who do not receive Islam.)
            “A (declaration) of immunity from God and His Apostle, to those of the pagans [The Meccan idolaters were the primary ones here in view.] with whom ye have contracted mutual alliances. Go ye, then, for four months backwards and forwards (as ye will) throughout the land, [YA: “The pagans and enemies of Islam frequently made treaties of mutual alliance with the Muslims. The Muslims scrupulously observed their part, but the pagans violated their part again and again when it suited them. After some years’ experience it became imperative to denounce such treaties altogether. This was done in due form, with four months’ notice, and a chance given to those who faithfully observed their pledges, to continue their alliance.”] but know ye that ye cannot frustrate God (by your falsehood), but that God will cover with shame those who reject Him. And an announcement from God and His Apostle, to the people (assembled) on the day of the great pilgrimage – that God and His Apostle dissolve (treaty) obligations with the pagans. If, then ye repent, it were best for you. But if ye turn away, know ye that ye cannot frustrate God. And proclaim a grievous penalty to those who reject faith. [It would seem that the ultimate sin is not believing in Islam, not just failing to keep their treaty agreement.] (But the treaties are) not dissolved with those pagans with whom ye have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor aided any one against you. So fulfil your engagements with them to the end of their term, for God loveth the righteous. But when the forbidden months are past, then fight and slay the pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war). But if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity, then open the way for them. [YA: “When war becomes inevitable, it must be prosecuted with vigour … The fighting may take the form of slaughter, or capture, or siege, or ambush and other stratagems. But even then there is room for repentance and amendment on the part of the guilty party, and if that takes place, our duty is forgiveness and the establishment of peace. “] For God is oft-forgiving, most merciful. If one among the pagans ask thee for asylum, grant it to him, so that he may hear the Word of God; and then escort him to where he can be secure. That is because they are men without knowledge.”
            Sura 9:11,12,14,15 (Pagans who accept Islam become brother Muslims. Fight those who break their agreements. God will punish them by your hands.)
            “But (even so), if they repent, establish regular prayer, and practice regular charity, they are your brethren in faith … But if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for your faith, fight ye the chiefs of unfaith, for their oaths are nothing to them … Fight them and God will punish them by your hands, cover them with shame, help you (to victory) over them, heal the breasts of believers, and still the indignation of their hearts. For God will turn (in mercy) to whom He will …”
            Sura 9:16 (God knows those who strive with all they have, and don’t make friends with or seek protection from non-Muslims)
            “Or think ye that ye shall be abandoned, as though God did not know those among you who strive with might and main, and take none for friends and protectors except God, His Apostle, and the (community of) believers? But God is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do.” [Notice that now Muslims are commanded to refrain from friendship with all non Muslims. This is because they are in a state of war with them. For this reason the Muslim world is sometimes referred to as, “the house of Islam” while the rest of the world is called “the house of war.”]
            Sura 9:19-22 (Jihad is greater than other service, and of the highest rank in the sight of God)
            “Do ye make the giving of drink to pilgrims, or the maintenance of the Sacred Mosque, equal to (the pious service of) those who believe in God and the last day, and strive [jihad] with might and main in the cause of God? They are not comparable in the sight of God, and God guides not those who do wrong. Those who believe, and suffer exile and strive with might and main in God’s cause with their goods and their persons [YA: “Here is a good description of jihad. It may require fighting in God’s cause, as a form of self-sacrifice. But its essence consists in (1) a true and sincere faith, which so fixes its gaze on God that all selfish or worldly motives seem paltry and fade away, and (2) an earnest and ceaseless activity, involving the sacrifice (if need be) of life, person, or property, in the service of God. Mere brutal fighting is opposed to the whole spirit of jihad, which the sincere scholar’s pen or preacher’s voice or wealthy man’s contributions may be the most valuable forms of jihad.”] have the highest rank in the sight of God. They are the people who will achieve (salvation). Their Lord doth give them glad tidings of a mercy from Himself, of His good pleasure, and of gardens for them, wherein are delights that endure. They will dwell therein for ever. Verily in God’s presence is a reward, the greatest (of all).”
            Sura 9:25,26 (fighting in the battle of Hunain Jan. 31, 630)
            “Assuredly God did help you in many battlefields and on the day of Hunain. [YA: “Hunain on the road to Taif, about 14 miles to the east of Mecca … Immediately after the conquest of Mecca (A.H. 8), the pagan idolaters, who were surprised and chagrined at the wonderful reception which Islam was receiving, organized a great gathering near Taif to concert plans for attacking the Apostle.] Behold! Your great numbers elated you, but they availed you naught. That land, for all that it is wide, did constrain you, and ye turned back in defeat. [YA: “There was a wave of confident enthusiasm among the Muslims at Mecca, in which the new Muslims joined. The enemy forces numbered about 4,000, but the Muslim force reached a total of ten or twelve thousand, as everyone wished to join. The enemy had the advantage in knowing the ground thoroughly. They laid an ambush in which the advance guard of the Muslim forces was caught. The country is hilly, in which the enemy concealed himself. As soon as the Muslim vanguard entered the Hunain valley, the enemy fell upon them with fury and caused havoc with their arrows from their places of concealment. In such ground the numbers of the Muslims were themselves a disadvantage. Many were slain, and many turned back in confusion and retreat.”] But God did pour His calm on the Apostle and on the believers, and sent down forces which ye saw not. [YA: “But the Apostle, as ever, was calm in his wisdom and faith. He rallied his forces and inflicted the most crushing defeat on the enemy.”] He punished the unbelievers; thus doth He reward those without faith.”
            Sura 9:28 (Forbid the pagans to enter the Ka’aba)
            “O ye who believe! Truly the pagans are unclean, [YA: “Unclean: both literally and metaphorically. Because Muslims are enjoined to be strict in ablutions and physical cleanliness, as well as in purity of mind and heart, so that their word can be relied upon.”] so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque.” [YA: “now that you have complete control of Mecca and are charged with the purity of worship there, shut out all impurity from this year.”] [When the pagans were in control and the small number of Muslims were not permitted to enter the Ka’aba, their persecution was called a “sacrilegious act” and “an open declaration of war.” Brigadier S. K. Malik says, “The enemy repression reached its zenith when the Koraish denied the Muslims access to the Sacred Mosque to fulfill their religious obligations.” Now that the tables are reversed, the denial of the pagans’ right to fulfill their religious obligations is not called “repression” but is excused on the grounds that they must “shut out all impurity” because the pagans “are unclean.”]
            Sura 9:29-31 (fight against Jews and Christians until they are subdued, because God’s curse is on them)
            “Fight those who believe not in God nor the last day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by God and His Apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of truth, (even if they are) of the people of the Book, until they pay the jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. [YA: “Jizya = the root meaning is compensation. The derived meaning, which became the technical meaning, was a poll tax levied from those who did not accept Islam, but were willing to live under the protection of Islam, and were thus tacitly willing to submit to its ideals being enforced in the Muslim State, saving only their personal liberty of conscience as regarded themselves … It was an acknowledgment that those whose religion was tolerated would in their turn not interfere with the preaching and progress of Islam … there were exemptions for the poor, for females and children, for slaves and for monks and hermits. Being a tax on able-bodied males of military age, it was in a sense a commutation for military service.”] The Jews call Uzair [Ezra] a son of God, [YA: “I have quoted passages from the Old Testament, showing how freely the expression “sons of God” was used by the Jews. A sect of them called Uzair (Ezra) a son of God, according to Baidhawi.”] and the Christians call Christ the Son of God … God’s curse be on them; how they are deluded away from the truth! They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of God, and (they take as their Lord) Christ the son of Mary. Yet they are commanded to worship but One God …” [YA: “The deification of the son of Mary is put here in a special clause by itself, as it held (and still holds) in its thrall a large portion of civilized humanity.”]
            Sura 9:38,39,41 (Don’t avoid fighting, but fight with whatever you have. Otherwise God will punish you with serious punishment.)
            “O ye who believe! What is the matter with you, that when ye are asked to go forth in the cause of God, ye cling heavily to the earth? Do ye prefer the life of this world to the hereafter? But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the hereafter. Unless ye go forth, He will punish you with a grievous penalty, and put others in your place … Go ye forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, [YA: “All were invited, and they were to bring such resources as they had – light armed or heavy armed, on foot or mounted, experienced men for posts of danger, raw men for duties for which they were fit. All would and should help. Even those who were too old or feeble to go could contribute such money or resources as they had.”] and strive [jihad] and struggle with your goods and your persons, in the cause of God. That is best for you, if ye (but) knew.”
            Sura 9:52,73 (Muslims can expect either martyrdom/paradise or victory in battle. Unbelievers can expect only punishment from God. Fight hard against unbelievers, whose abode is hell.)
            “Say, ‘Can you expect for us (any fate) other than one of two glorious things – (martyrdom or victory)? But we can expect for you either that God will send His punishment from Himself, or by our hands. So wait (expectant). We too will wait with you.’ … O Prophet! Strive [jihad] hard against the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and be firm against them. Their abode is hell – an evil refuge indeed.”
            Sura 9:81-96 (Those who are able but don’t want to fight are rejected of God. Those unable are forgiven.)
            “Those who were left behind (in the Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their inaction behind the back of the apostle of God. They hated to strive and fight with their goods and their persons, in the cause of God. They said, ‘Go not forth in the heat.’ [YA: “The Tabuk expedition had to be undertaken hurriedly in the heat of summer, because of a threat or fear of Byzantine invasion.”] [This war took place late in 630AD and is the first war against Christians.] …If, then, God bring thee back to any of them, and they ask thy permission to come out (with thee), say, ‘Never shall ye come out with me, nor fight an enemy with me. For ye preferred to sit inactive on the first occasion. Then sit ye (now) with those who lag behind.’ Nor do thou ever pray for any of them that dies, nor stand at his grave. For they rejected God and his apostle, and died in a state of perverse rebellion. Nor let their wealth nor their sons dazzle thee. God’s plan is to punish them with these things in this world, and that their souls may perish in their (very) denial of God. When a sura comes down, enjoining them to believe in God and to strive and fight along with his apostle, those with wealth and influence among them ask thee for exemption, and say, ‘Leave us (behind). We would be with those who sit (at home).’ They prefer to be with (the women), who remain behind (at home). [YA: “There is a stinging taunt in this, a suggestion that such men were cowards”] Their hearts are sealed and so they understand not. But the apostle, and those who believe with him, strive and fight with their wealth and their persons. For them are (all) good things, and it is they who prosper. God hath prepared for them gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein … There is no blame on those who are infirm, or ill, or who find no resources to spend (on the cause), if they are sincere (in duty) to God and his apostle … Nor (is there blame) on those who came to thee to be provided with mounts, and when thou saidst, ‘I can find no mounts for you’ they turned back. Their eyes streaming with tears of grief that they had no resources wherewith to provide the expenses…”
            Sura 9:111 (God gives Paradise to those who give all they have to God and slay and/or are slain in Jihad.)
            “God hath purchased of the believers their persons and their goods. For theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise). They fight in His cause, and slay and are slain.” [YA: “We offer our whole selves and our possessions to God, and God give us salvation, i.e., eternal freedom from the bondage of this world. This is the true doctrine of redemption … Any other view of redemption is rejected by Islam, especially that of corrupted Christianity, which thinks that some other person suffered for our sins and we are redeemed by his blood. It is our self-surrender that counts, not other people’s merits. Our complete self-surrender may include fighting for the cause, both spiritual and physical.”]
            Sura 9:122 (not everyone should go to fight, and those who stay are equal with those who go)
            “Nor should the believers all go forth together. If a contingent from every expedition remained behind, they could devote themselves to studies in religion, and admonish the people when they return to them…” [YA: “Even among those who are able to go forth, a party should remain behind – one in each township or circle – for purposes of study, so that when the fighters return home, their minds may be attuned again to the more normal interests of religious life, under properly instructed teachers. The students and teachers are soldiers of the Jihad in their spirit of obedience and discipline.”]
            Sura 9:123 (fight the unbelievers surrounding you)
            “O ye who believe! Fight the unbelievers who gird you about, and let them find firmness in you, and know that God is with those who fear Him.” [YA: “When conflict becomes inevitable, the first thing is to clear out surroundings of all evil, for it is only evil that we can rightly fight.”]
            Sura 5:36-38 (death or torture to those who oppose the Apostle)
            “The punishment of those who wage war against God and His Apostle, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land. [YA: “For the double crime of treason against the state, combined with treason against God, as shown by overt crimes, four alternative punishments are mentioned, any one of which is to be applied according to the circumstances, viz., execution (cutting off the head), crucifixion, maiming, or exile. These were features of the criminal law then and for centuries afterwards, except that tortures such as “hanging, drawing and quartering” in English Law, and piercing of eyes and leaving the unfortunate victim exposed to a tropical sun, which was practised in Arabia, and all such tortures were abolished. In any case sincere repentance before it was too late was recognised as a ground for mercy.”] [see Hadith 4:261 below] That is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the hereafter, except for those who repent before they fall into your power. In that case, know that God is oft-forgiving, most merciful. O ye who believe! Do your duty to God. Seek the means of approach unto Him, and strive with might and main in His cause, that ye may prosper.”
            Sura 5:54 (Don’t befriend Jews or Christians because they are unjust and unreliable)
            “O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors. They are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily God guideth not a people unjust.” [YA: “They are more likely to combine against you than to help you. And this happened more than once in the lifetime of the Apostle, and in after-ages again and again. He who associates with them and shares their counsels must be counted as of them.”] [In the early days in Mecca the enemies were the pagan Quraish while Jews and Christians were respected. In Medina, after the Jews rejected Mohammad’s claim of prophet-hood, the enemies of Islam grew to include the Jews and Christians.]
            THE LAW OF ABROGATION: [According to the Quran itself (Sura 2:106, 13:39 and 16:103) God sometimes substitutes a “better” verse or passage for one previously given, thus superceding the first one. Sura 2:106: “None of our revelations (verses) do we abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but we substitute something better or similar. Knowest thou not that God hath power over all things?”; Sura 13:39: “God doth blot out or confirm what he pleaseth. With Him is the Mother of the Book.”; Sura 16:101: “When we substitute one revelation for another, – and God knows best what He reveals (in stages), – they say, ‘Thou are but a forger’ but most of them understand not.” Although all Muslim scholars believe that God replaced some earlier verses by substituting later verses, there is a great difference of opinion among them as to which verses supercede which verses. Nevertheless, most are agreed that Sura 9:5, (called “the verse of the sword”) supercedes most of the previous verses regarding jihad. Some believe it supercedes as many as 111 previous verses. In spite of this general agreement, many today quote the previous replaced verses in order to validate their perception of Islam being a peaceful religion. Thus modern, liberal Muslim leaders, especially here in the west, are teaching what could be called “the Islam of Mecca” with its emphasis on non violence and tolerance. At the same time, “the Islam of Medina,” with its more aggressive, totalitarian nature is what is being practiced and taught by orthodox, fundamentalist Muslims in most parts of the Muslim world.]
            OTHER QUOTES ABOUT THE PROGRESSION OF TEACHING: [On page 538 of Brill’s Encyclopaedia of Islam the author describes the four stages. “The djihad is a duty. This precept is laid down in all the sources. It is true that there are to be found in the Kur’an divergent, and even contradictory, texts. These are classified by the doctrine, apart from certain variations of detail, into four successive categories: those which enjoin pardon for offences and encourage the invitation to Islam by peaceful persuasion; those which enjoin fighting to ward off aggression; those which enjoin the initiative in attack provided it is not within the four sacred months; and those which enjoin the initiative in attack absolutely, at all times and in all places. In sum, these differences correspond to the stages in the development of Muhammad’s thought and to the modifications of policy resulting from particular circumstances; the Meccan period during which Muhammad, in general, confines himself to moral and religious teaching, and the Medina period when, having become the leader of a politico-religious community, he is able to undertake, spontaneously, the struggle against those who do not wish to join this community or submit to his authority. The doctrine holds that the later texts abrogate the former contradictory texts … to such effect that only those of the last category remain indubitably valid.”]
            [On page xxiv of his introduction to Bukhari’s Hadith (see below), Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, the translator (into English) writes, “So at first ‘the fighting’ was forbidden, then it was permitted and after that it was made obligatory – (1) against those who start ‘the fighting’ against you (Muslims) … (2) and against all those who worship others along with Allah …”]
            JIHAD — THE TEACHING OF ISLAM
            B. FROM THE HADITH (TRADITIONS):
            [200 to 300 years after the death of Muhammad, several men devoted their lives to collecting verifiable (“sahih”) traditions (“hadith”) concerning the teachings and actions of Muhammad as witnessed by his followers and passed on through other reliable believers. Among the six most respected hadith collections, Muhammad bin Ismail bin Al-Mughirah Al-Bukhari’s nine volume collection is the most respected of all. Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, who translated Imam Bukhari’s work into English, wrote, “It has been unanimously agreed that Imam Bukhari’s work is the most authentic of all the other works in Hadith literature put together. The authenticity of Al-Bukhari’s work is such that the religious learned scholars of Islam said concerning him: ‘The most authentic book after the Book of Allah (i.e. Al-Qur’an) is Sahih-Al-Bukhari.’” In his careful investigation Imam Bukhari accepted as authentic only 7275 out of the 300,000 hadith which he heard. Among these traditions, are many regarding Muhammad’s teaching and practices concerning Jihad. (Volume four alone contains 283 of them.) I have selected the following 50 traditions from Imam Bukhari’s collection which I feel capture the essence of Jihad in Islam:]
            Key:
            • “The actual tradition is in bold print.”
            • Comments from Al-Bukhari are: [Bukhari: “in square brackets and smaller type”]. These may actually be the comments of the translator, but they appear to be those of Imam Bukhari.
            • [Any comments I have added are also in square brackets and smaller type]
            From Volume 1:
            1:35 Muhammad said, “The person who participates in (holy battles) in Allah’s cause and nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allah and His Apostles, will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a martyr). Had I not found it difficult for my followers, then I would not remain behind any sariya [army unit] going for Jihad and I would have loved to be martyred in Allah’s cause and then made alive, and then martyred and then made alive and then again martyred in His cause.”
            From Volume 4:
            4:41 Abdullah bin Masud said, “I asked Allah’s Apostle, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! What is the best deed?’ He replied, ‘To offer the prayers at their early stated fixed times.’ I asked, ‘What is next in goodness?’ He replied, ‘To be good and dutiful to your parents.’ I further asked, ‘What is next in goodness?’ He replied, ‘To participate in Jihad in Allah’s cause.’”
            4:42 (& 4:311) Muhammad said, “There is no Hijra (i.e. migration from Mecca to Medina) after the conquest (of Mecca), but Jihad and good intention [to fight in Jihad] remain; and if you are called (by the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth immediately.” [In other words, Muslims can not now join Muhammad in 610 A.D. in sacrificing and leaving their homes in Mecca in order to migrate to Medina, but they can show their dedication to God by sacrificing all they have in Jihad, or at least intend to if given the opportunity.]
            4:44 A man came to Muhammad and said, “Instruct me as to such a deed as equals Jihad (in reward).” He replied, “I do not find such a deed.” Then he added, “Can you, while the Muslim fighter is in the battle-field, enter your mosque to perform prayers without cease and fast and never break your fast?” The man said, “But who can do that?” [Bukhari: “Of course, nobody can pray and fast incessantly, and since the Muslim fighter is rewarded as if he was doing such good impossible deeds, no possible deed equals Jihad in reward.”]
            4:45 Someone asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! Who is the best among the people?” Allah’s Apostle replied, “A believer who strives his utmost in Allah’s cause with his life and property.” They asked, “Who is next?” He replied, “A believer who stays in one of the mountain paths worshiping Allah and leaving the people secure from his mischief.” [In other words, fighting in Jihad is better than being a devout monk.]
            4:46 Muhammad said, “… Allah guarantees the He will admit the Mujahid [one who fights in Jihad] in His cause into Paradise if he is killed, otherwise He will return him to his home safely with rewards and war booty.” [Imagine how Muslims must try to interpret Allah’s guarantee when they are defeated in Jihad, and neither die as martyrs nor are rewarded as victors.]
            4:49 Muhammad said, “Last night two men came to me (in a dream) and made me ascend a tree and then admitted me into a better and superior house, better of which I have never seen. One of them said, ‘This house is the house of martyrs.’”
            4:50 Muhammad said, “A single endeavour (of fighting) in Allah’s cause in the forenoon or in the afternoon is better than the world and whatever is in it.”
            4:53 Muhammad said, “Nobody who dies and finds good from Allah (in the hereafter) would wish to come back to this world even if he were given the whole world and whatever is in it, except the martyr who, on seeing the superiority of martyrdom, would like to come back to the world and get killed again (in Allah’s cause).”
            4:72 Mohammad said, “Nobody who enters Paradise likes to go back to the world even if he got everything on the earth, except a Mujahid [one who fights in Jihad] who wishes to return to the world so that he may be martyred ten times because of the dignity he receives (from Allah).”
            4:216 Muhammad said, “Were it not for the fear that it would be difficult for my followers, I would not have remained behind any Sariya (army unit) but I don’t have riding camels and have no other means of conveyance to carry them on, and it is hard for me that my companions should remain behind me. No doubt I wish I could fight in Allah’s cause and be martyred and come to life again to be martyred and come to life once more.”
            4:65 A man came to the Prophet and asked, “A man fights for war booty; another fights for fame and a third fights for showing off. Which of them fights in Allah’s cause?” The prophet said, “He who fights that Allah’s Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights in Allah’s cause.”
            4:66 Muhammad said, “Anyone whose both feet get covered with dust in Allah’s cause will not be touched by the (hell) fire.”
            4:72b Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba said, “Our Prophet told us about the message of our Lord that “… whoever amongst us is killed will go to Paradise.” Umar asked the Prophet, “Is it not true that our men who are killed will go to Paradise and their’s (i.e. those of the pagan’s) will go to the (hell) fire?” The Prophet said, “Yes.”
            4:73 Muhammad said, “Know that Paradise is under the shades of swords.”
            4:210 Once Allah’s Apostle (during a holy battle), waited till the sun had declined and then he got up among the people and said, “O people! Do not wish to face the enemy (in a battle) and ask Allah to save you (from calamities) but if you should face the enemy, then be patient and let it be known to you that Paradise is under the shades of swords.” He then said, “O Allah! The Revealer of the (holy) Book, the Mover of the clouds, and Defeater of Al-Ahzab (i.e. the clans of infidels), defeat the infidels and bestow victory upon us.”
            4:80 Muhammad said, “Allah welcomes two men with a smile. One of whom kills the other and both of them enter Paradise. One fights in Allah’s cause and gets killed. Later on Allah forgives the killer (i.e. he embraces Islam) who also get martyred (in Allah’s cause).”
            4:96 Muhammad said, “He who prepares a ghazi [a warrior returning from participating in Jihad] going in Allah’s cause is (given a reward equal to that of) a ghazi; and he who looks after properly the dependents of a ghazi going in Allah’s cause is (given a reward equal to that of) a ghazi.”
            4:127 Aisha (one of Muhammad’s wives) said, “I requested the Prophet to permit me to participate in Jihad, but he said, ‘Your Jihad is the performance of Hajj [the annual pilgrimage to Mecca].’”
            4:131 Anas said, “On the day (of the battle) of Uhud when (some) people retreated and left the Prophet I saw Aisha bint Abi Bakr and um Sulaim [two women], with their robes tucked up so that the bangles around their ankles were visible hurrying with their water skins. Then they would pour the water in the mouths of the people, and return to fill the water skins again and came back again to pour water in the mouths of the people.”
            4:137 Muhammad said, “… Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse to strive in Allah’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust. If he is appointed in the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction …”
            4:146 Muhammad said, “A time will come when groups of people will go for Jihad and it will be asked, ‘Is there anyone amongst you who has enjoyed the company of the Prophet?’ The answer will be ‘Yes.’ Then they will be given victory (by Allah). Then a time will come when it will be asked, ‘Is there anyone amongst you who has enjoyed the company of the companions of the Prophet?’ It will be said, ‘Yes,’ and they will be given the victory (by Allah). Then a time will come when it will be said, ‘Is there anyone amongst you who has enjoyed the company of the companions of the companions of the Prophet?’ It will be said, ‘Yes,’ and they will be given victory (by Allah).”
            4:147 Sahl bin Sa’d As-Sa’idi said, “Allah’s Apostle and the pagans faced each other and started fighting. When Allah’s Apostle returned to his camp and when the pagans returned to their camp, somebody talked about a man amongst the companions of Allah’s Apostle who would follow and kill with his sword any pagan going alone. He said, ‘Nobody did his job (i.e. fighting) so properly today as that man.’ Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Indeed, he is amongst the people of the (hell) fire.’ A man amongst the people said, ‘I shall accompany him (to watch what he does).’ Thus he accompanied him, and wherever he stood, he would stand with him, and wherever he ran, he would run with him. Then the (brave) man got wounded seriously and he decided to bring about his death quickly. He planted the blade of the sword in the ground directing its sharp end towards his chest between his two breasts. Then he leaned on the sword and killed himself. The other man came to Allah’s Apostle and said, ‘I testify that you are Allah’s Apostle.’ The Prophet asked, ‘What has happened?’ He replied, ‘(It is about) the man whom you had described as one of the people of the (hell) fire. The people were greatly surprised at what you said, and I said, “I will find out his reality for you.” So, I came out seeking him. He got severely wounded, and hastened to die by planting the blade of his sword in the ground directing its sharp end towards his chest between his two breasts. Then he leaned on his sword and killed himself.’ Then Allah’s Apostle said, ‘A man may seem to the people as if he were practicing the deeds of the people of Paradise while in fact he is from the people of the (hell) fire, another may seem to the people as if he were practicing the deeds of the people of hell (fire), while in fact he is from the people of Paradise.’” [This would seem to clearly condemn suicide, but it is not really the same as the suicide bombers who kill many enemies and die in the process. They are not condemned by the more radical Muslims, who would consider them true Martyrs going to Paradise.]
            4:162b Muhammad said, “My livelihood is under the shade of my spear, and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated by paying Jizya.” [“Jizya” is the poll tax paid by subjugated peoples in return for the protection of the Islamic government.]
            4:175 Umair said, “Um Haram informed us that she heard the Prophet saying, ‘Paradise is granted to the first batch of my followers who will undertake a naval expedition.’ Um Haram added, ‘I said, O Allah’s Apostle! Will I be amongst them?’ He replied, ‘You are amongst them.’ The Prophet then said, ‘The first army amongst my followers who will invade Caesar’s city will be forgiven their sins.’ I asked, ‘Will I be one of them, O Allah’s Apostle?’ He replied in the negative.” [Notice it is an invasion, not a defensive war.]
            4:179 Muhammad said, “The hour will not be established until you fight with the Turks; people with small eyes, red faces, and flat noses. Their faces will look like shields coated with leather. The hour will not be established till you fight with people whose shoes are made of hair.” [No wonder the Arabs and Turks don’t seem to like each other!]
            4:182 Ali said, “When it was the day of the battle of Al-Ahzab (i.e. the clans), Allah’s Apostle said, ‘O Allah! Fill their (i.e. the infidels’) houses and graves with fire as they busied us so much that we did not perform the prayer (i.e. ‘Asr) till the sun had set.’” [‘Asr is the 3rd prayer, which is to be done in middle of the afternoon. The 4th prayer is to be done just before sunset.]
            4:186 Aisha said, “Once the Jews came to the Prophet and said, ‘Death be upon you.’ So I cursed them. The Prophet said, ‘What is the matter?’ I said, ‘Have you not heard what they said?’ The Prophet said, ‘Have you not heard what I replied (to them)? (I said), (“The same is upon you.”)’” [Bukhari: “There is great similarity between the pronunciations of the Arabic words meaning ‘peace’ and ‘death.’ The first is ‘as-salamu’ and the second is ‘as-samu.’ The Jews instead of saying ‘As-salamu Alai-kum’ (‘peace be on you.’) said, ‘As-samu Alai-kum,’ intending to invoke evil upon the Prophet rather than to greet him. But the Prophet noticed what they had said and invoked evil upon them in his turn. They were the losers, for Allah would accept the Prophet’s invocation and reject theirs.”] [Quite a contrast with Jesus, who taught “Bless them who curse you.” (Luke 6:28)!]
            4:192 On the day of the battle of Khaibar, Sahl bin Sa’d heard Muhammad say, “I will give the flag to a person at whose hands Allah will grant victory.” So, the companions of the Prophet got up, wishing eagerly to see to whom the flag will be given, and everyone of them wished to be given the flag. But the Prophet asked for Ali. Someone informed him that he was suffering from eye-trouble. So, he ordered them to bring Ali in front of him. Then the Prophet spat in his eyes and his eyes were cured immediately as if he had never any eye-trouble. Ali said, “We will fight with them (i.e. infidels) till they become like us (i.e. Muslims).” The Prophet said, “Be patient, till you face them and invite them to Islam and inform them of what Allah has enjoined upon them. By Allah! If a single person embraces Islam at your hands (i.e. through you), that will be better for you than the red camels.”
            4:193 Anas said, “Whenever Allah’s Apostle attacked some people, he would never attack them till it was dawn. If he heard the adhan (i.e. call for prayer) he would delay the fight, and if he did not hear the adhan, he would attack them immediately after dawn.” [Bukhari: “The Prophet would wait till dawn to see whether the people he was attacking had been converted to Islam or not, and the sign of their embracing Islam will be the pronunciation of the adhan. He would not attack them if he heard the adhan.] [The message seems clear – convert or be attacked!]
            4:195 Anas said, “The Prophet set out for Khaibar [a Jewish village attacked and subjugated in 628] and reached it at night. He used not to attack if he reached the people at night, till the day broke. So, when the day dawned, the Jews came out with their bags and spades. [see Deuteronomy 23:12,13] When they saw the Prophet they said, ‘Muhammad and his army!’ The Prophet said, ‘Allahu-Akbar! (Allah is Greater) and Khaibar is ruined, for whenever we approach a nation (i.e. enemy to fight) then it will be a miserable morning for those who have been warned.’”
            4:196 Mohammad said, “I have been ordered to fight with the people till they say, ‘None has the right to be worshiped but Allah,’ and whoever says, ‘None has the right to be worshiped by Allah,’ his life and property will be saved by me except for Islamic law, and his accounts will be with Allah (either to punish him or to forgive him.)” [Clear enough! He was “ordered” to fight with the people until they become Muslims!]
            4:198 Ka’b bin Malik said, “Whenever Allah’s Apostle intended to carry out a Ghazwa, [a Jihad excursion with Mohammad leading.] he would use an equivocation to conceal his real destination till it was the Ghazwa of Tabuk [a valley in Arabia where the Muslims confronted Christians in 630] which Allah’s Apostle carried out in very hot weather. As he was going to face a very long journey through a wasteland and was to meet and attack a large number of enemies. So, he made the situation clear to the Muslims so that they might prepare themselves accordingly and get ready to conquer their enemy.”
            4:220 Muhammad said, “… I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy) …”
            4:248 Abdullah bin Amr said, “A man came to the Prophet asking his permission to take part in Jihad. The Prophet asked him, ‘Are your parents alive?’ He replied in the affirmative. The Prophet said to him, ‘Then exert yourself in their service.’” [Bukhari: “The participation in Jihad (i.e. holy battles) with one’s parents’ permission.”]
            4:256 As-Sa’b bin Jaththama said, “The Prophet … was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, ‘They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).’”
            4:258 Ibn Umar said, “During some of the Ghazawat [Jihad wars] of Allah’s Apostle a woman was found killed, so Allah’s Apostle forbade the killing of women and children.”
            4:259 Abu Huraira said, “Allah’s Apostle sent us in a mission (i.e. an army-unit) and said, ‘If you find so-and-so and so-and-so, burn both of them with fire.’ When we intended to depart, Allah’s Apostle said, ‘I have ordered you to burn so-and-so and so-and-so, and it is none but Allah Who punishes with fire, so, if you find them, kill them.’” [Maybe not with fire, but Muhammad’s order to kill these two enemies in some other way is clearly an act of aggression.]
            4:260 Ikrima said, “Ali burnt some people [apparently Muslims who had left Islam] and this news reached Ibn Abbas, who said, ‘Had I been in his place I would not have burnt them, as the Prophet said, “Don’t punish (anybody) with Allah’s punishment.” No doubt, I would have killed them, for the Prophet said, “If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.”’” [The Islamic law of apostasy mandates death to anyone who leaves Islam.]
            4:261 Anas bin Malik said, “A group of eight men from the tribe of Ukil came to the Prophet [i.e. they became Muslims and began to live in Medina with the Muslims] and then they found the climate of Medina unsuitable for them. So, they said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Provide us with some milk.’ Allah’s apostle said, ‘I recommend that you should join the herd of camels.’ So they went and drank the urine and the milk of the camels (as a medicine) till they became healthy and fat. Then they killed the shepherd and drove away the camels, and they became unbelievers after they were Muslims. When the Prophet was informed by a shouter for help, he sent some men in their pursuit, and before the sun rose high, they were brought and he had their hands and feet cut off. Then he ordered for nails which were heated and passed over their eyes, and they were left in the Harra (i.e. rocky land in Medina). They asked for water, and nobody provided them with water till they died.” [This obvious torture does not compare favorably with Yusuf Ali’s note in Sura 5:36-38.]
            4:264 Al-Bara bin Azib said, “Allah’s Apostle sent a group of Ansari men to kill Abu-Rafi’. One of them set out and entered their (i.e. the enemies’) fort. That man said, ‘I hid myself … and came upon Abu Rafi’ and said, “O Abu Rafi’.” When he replied me, I proceeded towards the voice and hit him. He shouted and I came out to come back, pretending to be a helper. I said, “O Abu Rafi’,” changing the tone of my voice … I asked him, “What happened to you?” He said, “I don’t know who came to me and hit me.” Then I drove my sword into his belly and pushed it forcibly till it touched the bone. Then I came out, filled with puzzlement and went towards a ladder of theirs in order to get down but I fell down and sprained my foot. I came to my companions and said, “I will not leave till I hear the wailing of the women.” So, I did not leave till I heard the women bewailing Abu Rafi’, the mercant of Hijaz. Then I got up, feeling no ailment, (and we proceeded) till we came upon the Prophet and informed him.’” [This treacherous murder followed by pleasure in the women’s wailing seems to be rewarded both by Allah’s miraculous healing and by Muhammad’s approval.]
            4:267,269 Muhammad said, “War is deceit.”
            4:270 Jabir bin Abdullah said, “The Prophet said, ‘Who is ready to kill Ka’b bin Al-Ashraf who has really hurt Allah and His Apostle?’ Muhammad bin Maslama said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Do you like me to kill him?’ He replied in the affirmative. So, Muhammad bin Maslama went to him (i.e. Ka’b) and said, ‘This person (i.e. the Prophet) has put us to task and asked us for charity.’ Ka’b replied, ‘By Allah, you will get tired of him.’ Muhammad said to him, ‘We have followed him, so we dislike to leave him till we see the end of his affair.’ Muhammad bin Maslama went on talking to him in this way till he got the chance to kill him.” [This certainly clarifies the meaning of “War is deceit.”]
            4:280b Anas bin Malik said, “Allah’s Apostle entered (Mecca) in the year of the conquest (of Mecca) wearing a helmet over his head. After he took it off, a man came and said, ‘Ibn Khatal [a pagan opponent] is clinging to the curtains of the Ka’ba.’ The Prophet said, ‘Kill him.’”
            4:286 Salarma bin Al-Akwa said, “An infidel spy came to the Prophet while he was on a journey. The spy sat with the companions of the Prophet and started talking and then went away. The Prophet said, (to his companions), ‘Chase and kill him.’ So, I killed him.”
            4:288 Ibn Abbas said, “… The Prophet on his death-bed, gave three orders saying, ‘Expel the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, …’” [The Muslims not only expelled the pagan Arabs from the land they had possessed for centuries, but until today they will not allow non-Muslims to be citizens of Saudi Arabia. Therefore, they should have no trouble understanding why the Jews have attempted to push the non Jewish Palestinians out of Palestine.]
            4:317 Abdullah said, “when the Prophet returned (from Jihad), he would say Takbir [i.e. “Allah-o Akbar” (Allah is greater)] thrice and add, ‘We are returning, if Allah wishes, with repentance and worshiping and praising (our Lord) and prostrating ourselves before our Lord. Allah fulfilled His promise and helped His slave, and He alone defeated the (infidel) clans.’”
            From Volume 9:
            9:50 (& 4:283) Ali said, “… no Muslim should be killed … for killing a kafir (disbeliever).” [In other words, killing a non Muslim is not murder, it is holy war.]
            9:57 Some Zanadiqa (atheists) were brought to Ali and he burnt them. The news of this event, reached Ibn Abbas who said, “If I had been in his place, I would not have burnt them, as Allah’s Apostle forbade it, saying, ‘Do not punish anybody with Allah’s punishment (fire).’ I would have killed them according to the statement of Allah’s Apostle, ‘Whoever changed his Islamic religion, then kill him.’”
            [On page xxiv of his introduction to Bukhari’s Hadith, Dr. M. Khan, the translator (into English) writes, “Then Allah revealed in Sura Bara’at (9) the order to discard (all) the obligations (covenants, etc.) and commanded the Muslims to fight against all the pagans as well as against the people of the scriptures (Jews and Christians) if they do not embrace Islam, till they pay the Jizya (a tax levied on the Jews and Christians who do not embrace Islam and are under the protection of an Islamic government) with willing submission and feel themselves subdued (9:29). So they (Muslims) were not permitted to abandon ‘the fighting’ against them (Pagans, Jews and Christians) and to reconcile with them and to suspend hostilities against them for an unlimited period while they are strong and have the possibility of fighting against them.”]

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